RAPPORTO OCSE sulla Protezione Civile in Italia,  presentato  dal Segretario Generale dell’OCSE, Angel Gurrìa, presso Palazzo Chigi – Lo  Studio è stato effettuato dall’Organizzazione tra il 2008 e il 2010  - (Roma 4 maggio 2010) -

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OECD International Futures Project on Risk Management Policies

ITALY- Review of the Italian National Civil Protection System

 ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION

AND DEVELOPMENT

The OECD is a unique forum where the governments of 30 democracies work together to address the economic, social and environmental challenges of globalisation. The OECD is also at the forefront of efforts to understand and to help governments respond to new developments and concerns, such as corporate governance, the information economy and the challenges of an ageing population. The Organisation provides a setting where governments can compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and work to co-ordinate domestic and international policies.

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FOREWORD

Foreword

 This fourth volume of the OECD Futures Project on Risk Management Policies contains a case study review of Italys civil protection system. It follows the publication of three previous volumes containing risk management case studies: “Norway: Information Security”; “Sweden: the Safety of Older People”; and “Japan: Large Scale Floods and Earthquakes”.

Launched in 2003, the OECD Futures Project on Risk Management Policies aims to assist countries to address the complex challenge of managing risks in the 21st century. The Project is monitored by a steering group, consisting of representatives from government ministries and agencies, whose objective is to identify best practices in risk management across countries in light of their ability to detect and adapt to significant changes with potential for significant disruptions to society and/or the economy. The Project follows a multidisciplinary approach in its analysis of government institutions, policies and programmes designed to tackle present and future challenges associated with highly disruptive events (e.g. natural and man-made disasters), and the major trends in demography, urbanisation, technology and climate that give shape to a new risk landscape. It produces case study reviews for participating countries that request an outside review of how they handle a specific risk management topic in order to identify best practices and areas where improvement can be made. Reviews begin with a self-assessment of relevant policies by national authorities in coordination with the OECD Secretariat, and are followed by a series of panel interviews with stakeholders conducted by a team of international experts.

Nearly the entire Italian national territory is exposed to some type of major natural hazard. Throughout Italys history, seismic tremors, hydro-geological events, forest fires and volcanic eruptions have periodically led to huge losses of human life and damage to property. Over the past century civil protection activities sporadically developed out of a series of ad hoc, local rescue interventions into a systematic and institutionalized approach to forecasting, alert, emergency management and relief. The need for a robust natural disaster management system has become clearer in light of associated costs over the past two decades alone, which are estimated at over EUR 100 billion when including damage to critical infrastructure. Beyond losses to human life, natural disasters may result in high economic impacts such as major production disruptions, widespread electrical failures, severe transport disturbances, the breakdown of communications services and damage to Italys rich archaeological and cultural patrimony- a pillar of its important tourist industry. For these reasons, Italys National Department of Civil Protection requested that OECD conduct a review of the civil protection system in Italy focusing on its activities related to earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, tsunamis, landslides and forest fires.

A preliminary self-assessment by civil protection stakeholders was launched in spring 2008 to prepare the ground for on-site visits and panel interviews from 6 - 10 October and 1 - 4 December 2008 with representatives from all levels of the National Civil Protection Service: central government departments, regional, provincial and municipal levels of government, prefectures, scientific institutes, volunteer organisations, and operators of infrastructure. In addition to the wide range of different actors interviewed, the panels were geographically distributed throughout northern, central and southern Italy.

This review analyses the policies, legislation, institutional structures, administrative reforms and operational programmes that together comprise the civil protection system in Italy, which encompasses the National Civil Protection Service (NCPS); an institution comprising all bodies and resources in the Italian territory that may be used for civil protection activities. It assesses Italys

FOREWORD

4. coordinated approach to each phase of the risk management cycle (risk assessment, prevention, protection, forecasting and early warning, emergency response, recovery and lessons learned), drawing on illustrations with reference to the following types of risks: earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, tsunamis, landslides and forest fires. The analytical criteria applied in this review are derived from „Emerging Risks in the 21st Century, which has been endorsed by the OECD Steering Group on Risk Management Policies. The review takes into account facets of Italys economy, constitutional and administrative reform, and public policies that lie outside the responsibilities of the NCPS mandate, but which provide context for a holistic analysis.

An introduction provides factual background on the most common risks of natural disasters in Italy, and presents some of the major trends that could impact upon civil protection activities in the future. Chapter 1 provides a general overview of the Italian legislative framework for civil protection policies, and describes recent changes related to the devolution of public administration, which provide important context for understanding the organisation and responsibilities of civil protection services. Chapter 2 conducts an analysis of the Italys unique approach to coordinating and managing disasters based on coordinated functions rather than exclusive competence. Chapter 3 considers risk assessment activities and disaster prevention policies. Chapter 4 describes risk communication efforts. Chapter 5 presents Italys approach to emergency preparedness and real time response. Chapter 6 covers post event issues or emergency overcoming as it is known in Italy. Chapter 7 focuses on finding financial solutions for necessary improvements to the system. Chapter 8 presents a synthesis of conclusions and recommendations.

Each chapter is divided into several sections, in most cases introduced by an analysis of the general context, and then the Review Teams assessment and recommendations for action. The report does not only focus on areas where emergency management could be improved, it also describes areas and solutions in the form of instruments and policies that can be considered best practices that should be promoted in other OECD countries.

The OECD Expert Review Team consisted of Mr. Pentti Partanen, Director General of the Department for Rescue Services of the Finnish Ministry of the Interior; Mr. Beat Habegger, Researcher from the Swiss National Institute of Technology, Centre for Security Studies and was led by Mr. Ulf Bjurman, Senior Advisor on Civil Protection and Crisis Management, previously Head of Department in the Swedish Rescue Services Agency. Mr. Barrie Stevens, Deputy Director of the International Futures Program, and Mr. Jack Radisch, Policy Analyst, represented the OECD Secretariat in the Review.

Michael Oborne

Director

OECD International Futures Program

 Table of Contents

Executive Summary .......................................................................................................... 7

Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 11

A history marked by natural disasters - consequences and estimated damage............ 11

Emerging risks ............................................................................................................. 15

Chapter 1. The General Policy Framework .................................................................... 17

National strategies and legislation ............................................................................... 17

The civil protection role of regions, provinces, prefects and municipalities ............... 21

Coordination of the Italian National Civil Protection Service .................................... 27

Operations .................................................................................................................... 31

International cooperation ............................................................................................. 34

Central government sector competencies .................................................................... 35

Technical-scientific support and research ................................................................... 40

Critical infrastructure ................................................................................................... 42

Volunteer organisations ............................................................................................... 43

Chapter 2. Analysis of Italys civil protection system ................................................... 44

The central administrative structure for civil protection and the legislative context .. 44

Implementation of civil protection responsibilities in the regions, provinces

and municipalities ........................................................................................................ 48

Chapter 3. Risk Assessment and Prevention .................................................................. 52

Analysis of the general context ................................................................................... 52

Early warning systems ................................................................................................. 53

Risk assessment activities and prevention policies ..................................................... 54

Chapter 4. Risk Communication and Information to the Public .................................... 60

Chapter 5. Preparedness and Real Time Response ........................................................ 64

Analysis of the general context ................................................................................... 64

Chapter 6. Post Event Issues, Emergency Overcoming ................................................. 70

General context ............................................................................................................ 70

Chapter 7. General Issues ............................................................................................... 74

Chapter 8. Synthesis of Conclusions and Recommendations ........................................ 76

Annex 1. Italian Civil Protection Legislation - Main Laws and Regulations .................. 84

Annex 2. Critical Infrastructures which Form Part of NCPS ........................................ 108

Annex 3. OECD Review of Italian National Civil Protection Service (NCPS) ............ 114

FOREWORD

6

Annex 4. Presentation of INGV, RELUIS and the EUCENTRE .................................. 124

Annex 5. List of Interviewees........................................................................................ 128

Notes ............................................................................................................................. 130

Tables

Table 1. Major Earthquakes in Italy........................................................................ 11

Table 2. Population aged 65 and over relative to the population of 15-64 in 2000 and 2050 16

Table 3. Structure of the National Civil Protection Service ................................... 18

Table 4. Regions of Italy ......................................................................................... 24

Table 5. The Department of Civil Protection: its 9 offices and 42 services ........... 30

Figures

Figure 1. Seismic zones up to 2003 .......................................................................... 12

Figure 2. Seismic zones from 2004 .......................................................................... 12

Figure 3. Satellite mapping of forest fires: July 24 2007 ......................................... 14

Figure 4. Number of wildfires in Italy 1970-2008 ................................................... 15

Figure 5. Changes under Law No. 286/ 2002........................................................... 20

Figure 6. Regions of Italy ......................................................................................... 23

Figure 7. The Operational Committee at work ......................................................... 28

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

7

Executive Summary

The self-assessment exercise, panel interview process and on-site visits have provided the Review Team with documentation, testimony and the opportunity to observe the effectiveness of the Italys civil protection system, to assess how a selection of its components interact within its operational structure, to identify several best practices and to formulate recommendations for improvement.

The Review Team has found:

1. Practical applications for risk assessments:

Italy has implemented a coherent, multi-risk approach to civil protection that fully integrates scientific research and technological expertise into a structured system for forecasting and early warning of natural disasters. With regard to its delayed time activities, the National Department of Civil Protection (DPC) provides strong support to knowledge development of natural hazardous phenomenon through a network of competence centres. It should continue and strengthen research efforts on the vulnerability of its population, building stock and critical infrastructures to risks associated with these phenomenon in partnership with competence centres and national research institutes, and foster their collaboration with bodies outside Italy, for instance through relevant European Union programmes.

2. Sophisticated disaster models, and forecasting and early warning systems:

An effective system of information sharing between real time monitoring stations and civil protection authorities provides high capacity to model events and mobilize actions before certain types of disastrous events occur (e.g. volcanoes and floods) by estimating with greater accuracy the appropriate mode of action and level of response required. This system also helps decision makers set priorities when multiple events occur simultaneously as is the case with forest fires in high season. High priority should be given to completing the national network of Functional Centres (CFSEs) in all regions and autonomous provinces. A common modern technology standard to facilitate interoperability is paramount.

3. Valuable central government leadership in the case of large scale disasters and national emergency management:

Situating DPC under the President of the Council of Ministers ensures that resources from all central government ministries, local government and the private sector may be put to use rapidly and in a coordinated fashion to minimize consequences of large scale disasters. There are signs that this model of joined-up efforts is gaining favour in different countries, and that Italy stands out in its ability to coordinate different levels of public safety and security services. The Italian civil protection systems capacity to coordinate capabilities is especially laudable in light of its proven ability to act outside the national territory with effectiveness. Upon request volunteer organisations can be mobilized to other members of the European Union, to any location where Italian nationals require assistance, and

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

8 especially to countries that have suffered a natural disaster and are in need of humanitarian aid. DPC should continue and strengthen its efforts to share its expertise in disaster management with developing countries through training programmes and capacity building efforts.

4. Uneven civil protection capacity across local levels of government:

The National Civil Protection Service (NCPS) incorporates a well coordinated and highly mobile force of volunteer organisations to fortify emergency response, relief and recovery activities. There is nevertheless a glaring disparity between the civil protection capabilities of many Italian municipalities; some are well developed while others possess a low level of capacity for emergency management - even in regions with very high risks of natural disasters. This imbalance between risk and response capabilities calls for action to establish and maintain minimum standards for crisis management throughout Italy. An efficient inspection system, supplemented by the power to implement sanctions, is needed to ensure that minimum standards are adhered to for civil protection services in all provinces and municipalities.

5. The need for a plan to maintain a high level of professionally trained staff:

Throughout DPC and regional civil protection services the staff demonstrate a high level of technical expertise and motivation. In the broader NCPS however, a life long learning system should be instituted to maintain commitment and up to date skills for human resource development. Implementation of an education and training programme could furthermore advance the recruitment of volunteers in parts of Italy where these important resources lag behind national averages.

6. Prevention plans and policies have been formally adopted, but their implementation is weaker than desirable:

Severe impacts from past disasters reveal an urgent need to increase damage reduction efforts and better implement prevention policies. High priority should be given to strengthening the enforcement of land use restrictions in zones exposed to natural hazards and ensuring the application of seismic codes in building and infrastructure construction, reconstruction and retrofitting. These measures should be further strengthened by legislation that introduces a more effective system of inspection, control and sanctions for violations. DPC should be given a role with legal support to act as a “champion” for a safer society, and to seize opportunities for a more forward-looking approach to the whole risk management cycle that detects the early warning signals of emerging risks.

7. Risk communication is well implemented at all levels of the NCPS, but some best practice tools are not used:

Civil protection services at regional, provincial and municipal level both make broad and targeted outreach efforts to raise public awareness about risks. Preventative information could be improved by disseminating risk maps to inform communities about specific and local risks, thereby complementing efforts to reduce the high number of residents exposed to natural hazards. Leveraging the extensive reach of its constituent bodies, the NCPS is in a strong position to launch an action plan to improve the publics understanding of climate change impacts on hydro-geological risks and heat waves that would aim to dispel expectations that the future will be roughly like the past. As a resiliency building measure it could provide simple instructions to citizens about how they should prepare themselves accordingly. High priority should be given to full implementation of the single 112 Emergency Call Number for the benefit of persons in urgent need of help.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

8. A need for a comprehensive framework legislation on civil protection to provide an overall picture of the system and to clarify roles and responsibilities as well as expectations:

Italys system for overcoming disasters relies on the coordination of multiple functions, resources and capabilities located in various bodies and organizations, rather than attributing competence to a single actor. Under such a scheme the clarity of roles and responsibilities takes on increased importance. Legislation pertaining to civil protection has developed in multiple increments over the past 100 years. To achieve transparency, a comprehensive overview and improved public understanding, this corpus of laws, ordinances and decrees should be streamlined into a coherent legislative framework. The expectations of provinces and prefectures should be more detailed since both are expected to take part in civil protection activities, but they appear to be more strongly involved in some areas of the country than in others. There is scope to reconsider the seemingly duplicative functions of Italys multiple police forces as a resource saving measure.

9. The „return to normal following a disaster could be accelerated through policies supporting broader risk sharing:

Natural disaster damages as a % of GDP are amongst the highest in OECD countries. Public policy does not adequately support incentives for retrofitting and private investment in disaster mitigation. Policymakers should re-launch deliberations over a public-private system that would improve insurance coverage for natural disaster losses that could build in incentives for individuals to invest in mitigation measures, such as lower premiums or deductibles in conjunction with a building code compliance rating system.

10. Lessons learned ex post disaster could be better leveraged to review and modify policies through a more formalized process:

A formal system or structure should be established for evaluating systematically and independently the response to disasters, to collect information on damages and to draw lessons learned from these events to reformulate policies. Placing the „Major Risk Commission within a more formalized setting and giving it this mandate might well serve this purpose.

 INTRODUCTION

11Introduction

 A history marked by natural disasters - consequences and estimated damage

The Italian national territory is exposed to severe natural hazards, some of which are exacerbated by human activity.

Earthquakes

Numerous seismic faults cover Italys national territory, and it is expected that there are many more that remain unknown. Events are particularly severe with high potential for serious consequences in the Apennine Mountains (Irpinia), the Calabrian Arc, Eastern Sicily and in the Friuli region of north-eastern Italy. In central Italy seismicity is characterized by more frequent events of moderate magnitude.

Table 1. Major Earthquakes in Italy:   Year, Location, Deaths, Injuries

1857

Basilicata

˜12,000

*

1906

Calabria

557

˜2000

1907

Calabria

167

˜ 90

1908

Calabria/Messina

˜90,000

14,138

1910

Irpinia

˜50

*

1914

Etna (Vulcan)

˜69

115

1915

Fucino

32,610

*

1919

Mugello

˜100

˜400

1920

Lunigiana/Garfagnana

171

˜650

1930

Irpinia

1,778

4,264

1968

Belice

231

623

1976

Friuli

989

˜3,000

1980

Irpinia- Basilicata

2,914

˜10,000

1997

Marche-Umbria

11

˜100

2002

Molise-Puglia

29

*

2009

Abruzzo

309

˜1500

Source: Department of Civil Protection. ˜ signifies approximately; * signifies no data available.

The Abruzzo Earthquake on 6 April 2009 (and its aftershocks) led to 309 fatalities with reconstruction costs estimated at EUR 12 billion. It is estimated that more than 120 000 persons have died in earthquake-related events over the last century.

INTRODUCTION 13

Much of the building stock and public works in Italy predate modern seismic codes, and the uptake of seismic zoning, where new construction is obliged to follow seismic codes, has been slow. Large-scale development of public works proceeded very quickly in the period between the 1950s and the 1990s, while seismic zoning was mainly put in place after the 1980 Irpinia and the 2002 San Giuliano di Puglia earthquakes. Protection or retrofitting of Italys cultural and environmental heritage to bring it into conformity with the requirements of seismic codes remains a persistent challenge, due to the expense of such works in general and risk of damaging their artistic value. The result is that most of the existing buildings and public works are not adequately protected against the consequences of earthquakes. The combination of the considerable seismicity, population and construction density and vulnerability due to buildings susceptible to collapse, results in a high seismic risk for most of the Italian territory, even higher than the risk in other countries exhibiting a higher seismic hazard. Up to 40% of the Italian population are estimated to live in highly seismic areas (zone 1 and 2) where 60% of buildings are not constructed according to seismic codes.

Volcanic eruptions

There are several active volcanoes present on the national territory including Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius, but thanks to modern technology they can be monitored constantly. Volcanology and the capacity to forecast eruptions have improved tremendously and permit precautionary measures such as alerts to be sounded and evacuations to be initiated, though perhaps not completed. Vesuvius is regarded as a particularly dangerous volcano due to its location in the most densely populated volcanic region in the world and tendency towards sudden and extremely violent eruptions. The consequences of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD for Herculaneum and Pompeii are known the world over. Dense housing developments in lava flow zones over the past 60 years are evidence, however, that the local population has forgotten or severely underestimates the immense danger it is exposed to. One of the most violent eruptions of Mount Vesuvius occurred in 1660 BC at Avellino, two kilometres west of the present crater. Another significant eruption in 1631 in combination with torrential and persistent rain led to between 3.000 and 4.000 casualties and destroyed parts of Portici and other towns in the area. The most recent eruption in 1944 had more limited consequences, but still destroyed several villages.

Floods and landslides

Serious flooding, (sometimes in the form of flash floods) and landslides afflict many parts of the country. Such hydro-geological risks are the most frequently occurring natural hazard in Italy. Over the past 80 years, there have been as many as 5 400 floods and 11 000 landslides and avalanches. There have been more than 3 500 fatalities due to hydro-geological risks over the past 50 years. The damage these events cause to critical infrastructure have also resulted in enormous costs to the Italian economy with consequence such as severe electricity failures, transport disruptions, major production loss and telecommunications failures. The flooding of the Arno River in 1966 is considered to be the worst in the history of Florence since 1557. The casualties numbered 101; 5,000 families were left homeless by the storm; and 6,000 stores were forced out of business. The damage to or destruction of millions of masterpieces of art and rare books for which Florence is famous was devastating and focused world attention on the disaster. Even decades later, much restoration work remains to be done.

There are 9 187 geographic areas classified as very high landslide risk areas in Italy. Landslides in the twentieth century alone caused 5 939 deaths, or an average of nearly 60 per year. The annual damage cost has been calculated to be one billion EUR (0.15 % GDP)1. The most recent disaster occurred in 1998 at Sarno and Quindici in the Campania region when secondary layers detached from the slopes of Pizzo dAlvano and killed 160 persons.

INTRODUCTION

14

Forest fires

Forest fires are extremely frequent events, naturally in the hot and dry periods of the year, but also in the winter. The forests cover one third of the country and often a number of severe forest fires occur simultaneously, thus high capacity for communication, prioritisation and coordination is necessary. Figure 2 provides satellite imagery of forest fires on a single day some of which were large enough to spread smoke over the Adriatic Sea.

 Figure 3. Satellite mapping of forest fires: July 24 2007

Source: NASA-MODIS (2007)

Fires are frequently started by arsonists hoping to lay claim to the degraded land for new construction. Large forest fires need water bombing from the air to be extinguished. The number of requests for water bombing generally reaches around 1000 per year but have in some years reached 2000 or more.

INTRODUCTION

15

 Figure 4. Number of wildfires in Italy 1970-2008

Source: Paolo Fiorucci & Francesco Gaetani, CIMA Research Foundation, Wildfire risk assessment and management (2008).

 Emerging risks

The objectives of civil protection activities in Italy are ordered toward planning for disasters or actually managing interventions following disasters to reduce loss of human life, as well as damage to goods, national heritage, human settlements and the environment. Such overall objectives, as well as operational needs and requirements, are quite different from those committed to medium-long term prevention, sustainable development and environmental protection, even though knowledge, information and experiences between the two management approaches, programmes and activities must be shared and exchanged. Similar to other industrialized economies, Italys production depends on the well functioning of its infrastructure networks for communications, transport, and utilities. Significant risks are associated with potential failures of critical infrastructure and the particular problems that their interdependencies can give rise to under emergency situations.

Box 1- Knock-on effects of damaged critical infrastructure

On the 28th September 2003, a blackout affected more than 56 million people across Italy and areas of Switzerland. Estimates vary for the number of fatalities that were directly related to the loss of power. 30, 000 people were trapped on trains. Several hundred passengers were stranded on underground transit systems. There were significant knock-on effects across other critical infrastructures. Many commercial and domestic users suffered disruption in their power supplies for up to 48 hours. The immediate trigger for the blackout stemmed from a fault in the Swiss transmission system, but the consequences of the initial failure propagated across the border affecting the networks in France, Slovenia, and Austria. It also led to a domino effect that ultimately led to the separation of the Italian system from the rest of the European grid. Such “knock-on effect” may produce disruptions in the financial and payment systems, including credit cards, and telecommunications, energy and transport systems.

INTRODUCTION 16

The ageing population in Italy is also a considerable and growing risk factor, since elderly citizens as a group have special needs in emergency situations, such as limited mobility and generally lower incomes and poorer health to cope with adverse conditions following a disastrous event. Statistically, the elderly are also more vulnerable to heat waves. Amongst OECD countries, Italy had the third highest population percentage above age 65 in 2007; behind Japan and Germany. Between 1997 and 2007 this figure accelerated at a greater pace in Italy than all other OECD countries except Japan. The “old age dependency ratio” (numbers of people aged 65+ compared with the 15-64 year-olds) is projected to more than double in Italy by 2050. In other words, the forecast is for two people in the 65+ bracket for every three 15-64 year-olds.

 Table 2. Population aged 65 and over relative to the population of 15-64 in 2000 and 2050

Source: Ageing OECD Societies, Ch. 1, Table 1.6 (OECD 2008).

Lastly, climate change is anticipated to introduce or augment the level of certain risks, such as rising sea levels and extreme weather conditions that produce floods, droughts and seasonal fires. While average precipitation levels have remained steady on a yearly basis in Italy, seasonal variance has become more extreme, i.e. wet periods are wetter and dry periods are dyer. The impacts of sea level rise on port cities holds economic importance not only for sea freight and passenger transport in cities like Genoa and Ancona, but also for centres of tourism such as Venice.

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK

17Chapter 1

The General Policy Framework

 Civil protection is used to describe organized action aimed at coping with collective threats caused by natural or human induced disasters. In Italy, a unique system of civil protection evolved gradually over the course of the 20th century from basic legislation that in the first instance was to establish a permanent fire brigade. Like many countries, the governance of civil protection was born of local necessity, but involves central government services when events exceed local capabilities to manage them. Over the past 100 years successive legislative acts have often followed major natural disasters that made clear the need for permanent institutions to manage and lead the many civil protection capacities found throughout various ministries, levels of government, scientific institutes, industry and volunteer associations; from forest fire fighters and the national police to volcanic monitoring and canine units. Government civil protection services at central, regional, provincial and municipal level are now structured to coordinate their operations and resources with non-governmental actors through a top-down, bottom-up organisational system that strategically integrates capabilities at short notice and in real time. The National Civil Protection Service (NCPS) provides a legally recognized, institutional form to these diverse actors, with its mandate to protect human lives, health, economic assets, cultural and architectural heritage, human settlements and the environment from any kind of disaster, either natural or man-made.

 National strategies and legislation

The legislative acts described below do not cover the entirety of the many laws, decrees and ordinances related to civil protection in Italy, which may be enacted at national or regional level, although Annex 1 provides more detailed descriptions of the major pieces. The sections below describe the key legislation to understanding Italys unique top-down / bottom-up dynamic in emergency management planning and operations. Together these acts provide the legal basis for civil protection interventions that are proportionate to the level of capacity needed to respond to the broad variety of natural hazards facing the Italian territory, and reflect the efficiencies demanded by a decentralized system of public administration that operates under the principle of subsidiarity.

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK

18 Establishment of the National Civil Protection Service

The National Civil Protection Service was established in 1992 (L. 24.2.1992 n. 225). The Prime Minister, or by delegation to the Minister for Coordination of Civil Protection, and the Department of Civil Protection (DPC), which was created within the Prime Ministers Office, was given the responsibility to initiate and to coordinate the emergency activities of the central government, regions, provinces, municipalities, agencies, institutions relevant institutions or organizations, both public and private, present on the national territory. The role of the voluntary organisations was reaffirmed and recognized and a fund for civil protection was institutionalized. Each of these entities acts within its own area of competence and responsibility. In the legislation on the Italian National Civil Protection Service, these entities are designated as the components and operational structures of the Service.

 Table 3. Structure of the National Civil Protection Service

The law 225/1992 grants the government Cabinet the power to declare a state of emergency. The Major Risk Commission was formally created as a link between the civil protection administration and the different scientific communities; furthermore the National Commission for Prediction and Prevention of Major Risks, the Civil Protection Operation Committee and the National Council for Civil Protection were established. Besides the emergency services, the law dealt with forecasting and prevention measures which were included in the scope of civil protection. Prevention was no longer limited to matters related to the rescue of persons in emergency situations, the reconstruction or restoration of effected areas but also included measures to limit the impact of major risks in Italy. Through this legislation, the Italian government approach to civil protection changed from a system of post emergency intervention to a system which included risk assessment, forecasting and measures for prevention of risks.

The law 225/1992 defined civil protection in Italy as a structure based on the principle of subsidiarity. At the lowest level, the mayor has operational responsibility in his municipality; when the municipal resources are insufficient to manage the crisis, the next levels of responsibility are called into play as needed (region, province, central government). The law had the intention of harmonising

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK 19

efforts across different levels of responsibility and improving efficiency; it does not intend to centralize powers and competences. If a special commissioner was not nominated, then the prefect had the task of coordinating the support with the municipality level. The regions were required to improve their structure for civil protection intervention and support, and promote capacity building of the local organisations. The provinces were to participate actively in the national level efforts and elaborate provincial programmes for prediction and prevention.

Changes in administrative competences

The 1997 constitutional law (L 15.3.1997 n. 59) introduced decentralisation and criteria for the distribution of the administrative competences resulted in the attribution to local bodies of all duties, which were not specifically assigned to the central government or other levels of competence. The competences among national, regional and local levels were formally modified (L 31.3.1998 n. 112). Civil protection was in consequence recognized as a system of joint competence with different tasks attributed to the regions and the local communities with the exception of specific certain responsibilities, i.e. those which fall within the scope of the National Civil Protection Service. A specification of the tasks within the competence of the central government, the regions and the municipalities respectively was adopted (L. 28.8.1997 n. 281).

In 2001 modifications were made to the Italian constitutional law which had implications on the power of the central government and the regions to legislate (Constitutional L. 18.10.2001 n. 3). The reform not only established in the Constitution the principle of vertical subsidiarity within the institutional levels of power, but also the horizontal within the public and private sector, by increasing the role of individuals, associations and business enterprises. This is reflected in the high level of coordination between civil protection authorities, volunteer organisations, utilities and critical infrastructure operators. The constitutional reform also took account of the constraints imposed on the Constitution due to international law and European Union treaty agreements with obligations limiting national sovereignty. A domestic law which contradicts international obligations assumed by Italy is thus to be considered anti-constitutional. The reform places emphasis on and clarifies the precedence of international commitments derived among others from treaties over relevant domestic legislation.

Changed civil protection structure in 2001

Legislation in 2001 changed the Italian civil protection structure. Two laws were put into place. (Law 7.9.2001 n. 343 on urgent dispositions for the operational coordination of the structures designated for the civil protection activities and the improvement of logistic structures of civil protection); and the Law 9.11.2001 n. 401 adopting with guidelines to guarantee the operational coordination of the structures in charge of carrying out civil protection activities and for the improvement of civil defence logistic structures). The latter law transferred the responsibility to the Prime Minister, in collaboration with the regions and local communities, for the planning of operational emergency guidelines, forecasting and prevention programmes against risks, as well as the national rescue programmes and planning responsibility to carry out required emergency measures. With this legislation the assigned responsibilities of civil protection activities were thus returned to the situation established by legislation in 1992. The competence of the central government in civil protection matters was placed once again with the Prime Minister. The National Civil Protection Agency was abolished and the Department for Civil Protection (DPC) re-established within the Prime Ministers Office.

The Prime Minister was given the power to delegate his competence in the area of civil protection to the Minister of Interior. A Committee for government, regions and local communities was established and the National Commission for Prediction and Prevention of Major Risks as well as the Civil Protection Operational Committee and the National Council for Civil Protection were

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK  20

maintained. Consequently, on 2 March and 12 April 2002 the Prime Minister issued decrees establishing the Civil Protection Operational Committee and re-establishing the National Commission for Prediction and Prevention of Major Risks respectively.

Legislation in 2002 (Law. 4.11.2002 n. 245, converted by Law. 27.12.2002 n. 245, and including its modifications in Law. 27.12.2002 n. 286) conferred full authority on the Prime Minister to undertake action upon the outbreak of an extraordinary emergency situation; the criteria to evaluate the situation depend upon the life threatening risk level. This action is triggered by a request from the Head of the Department of Civil Protection and after conferring with the President of the region involved before releasing a state of emergency declaration. To deal with the emergency, the Prime Minister has the authority to decide on the extent of involving the available operational structures of the National Civil Protection Service, and the Head of the Department of Civil Protection coordinates the resources necessary to manage the events consequences.

Previously the Prime Minister issued on 20 December 1998 guidelines for the planning of prediction, prevention and response activities in respect to forest fires. In 2001 the President of the Republic issued a Declaration (194/2001) regulating the participation of volunteer organisations in the civil protection activities.

The Head of DPC was given the authority over all public and private organizations for operational coordination in civil protection matters. New in the 2002 decrees was that large events were not defined precisely, but given a generic character and decisions on the response to natural emergencies and disasters were to be made in each situation by the government, on proposal of the Head of DPC.

 Changes under Law No. 286/ 2002

EVTwhich, because of its intensity and size, shall require extraordinary means and authoritiesLaw no. 225/1992meeting of Council of MinistersDeclaration of the “State of Emergency”and appointment ofthe Head CommissionerEVENTemergencystate of major entitytobeassessedon the basisof itslife threateningpotentialriskThe President of the Council of Ministersbefore declaring the state of emergencydecides the activation of the civil protection national system The Head of the Civil Protection Department is in charge of coordinatingall the interventions to face the emergencyLaw no. 286/2002

Source: Department of Civil Protection (2008).

 1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK 21

2008 Operational Guidelines for Emergency Management

On 3 December 2008, the Prime Minister issued „Operational Guidelines for Emergency Management. It is incumbent upon the representatives of the different component parts and structures of the National Civil Protection Service to ensure the implementation of the established intervention activities. The specific competences and the procedures of these different component parts of the system need to be respected when working together in the Operational Committee. In particular, the representative of each component and structure is responsible for actions which the guideline spells out through well-defined, specific tasks related to immediate actions and actions to be carried out within 12 and 24 hours respectively.

The civil protection role of regions, provinces, prefects and municipalities

Italy has a population of nearly 60 million people and a total terrestrial area of just over 300.000 km² including Sicily and Sardinia, the two largest islands in the Mediterranean. The country is subdivided into 20 regions, 109 provinces and 8,104 municipalities. Many municipalities are remote, sparsely populated and possess very limited resources for public services, yet their locations are often highly exposed to natural hazards. The Italian regions vary greatly according to their size, population, cultural and linguistic characteristics, productive capacity of their economic activities and the types of natural hazards to which they are exposed. The regions are even different with respect to their degree of independence and power to legislate: five regions (Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Aosta Valley, Trentino Alto Adige and Sicily) have a special autonomous status that enables them to enact legislation on some local matters. The autonomous region of Trentino Alto Adige is divided into two autonomous provinces: the Province of Trento (or Trentino) and the Province of Bolzano (or Alto Adige/Südtirol).

Following a national process of administrative reform (described below in greater detail), regions provinces and municipalities have responsibility for civil protection within their territorial areas. Civil protection is, as stated before, based on the principle of subsidiarity, i.e. in each municipality the mayor is responsible for civil protection and organizes municipal resources according to a pre-established municipal emergency plan. The latter is designed to cope with specific risks that might occur in the municipalitys territory. The support of provinces and regions as well as the assistance of central government administrations, co-ordinated by the prefects, is brought to bear when local capacity is insufficient to manage the scale of the disruptive event. The central government maintains its role of providing general orientation and coordination in the field of civil protection, but the regions and the local institutions are responsible for the preparedness and management of ordinary emergencies at the local level. In the most serious situations, a national level integration will take place and emergency forces available on the spot will unite with any other staff and equipment necessary to meet the needs effectively.

Civil protection at regional level

Regions have authority over such policy areas as transportation, education, environment, etc., which helps organize civil protection activities and structures in light of their specific territorial and risk characteristics. The autonomous regions/ provinces, can issue their own legislation although it does not take precedence over established national legislation. All the regions are responsible for carrying out risk assessment for natural and technological risks, forecasting and prevention programmes. Regional differences in climate, topography and socio-economic characteristics account for their diverse civil protection capacities. They must provide the fundamental civil protection functions, however, such as relief operations, according to the national guidelines defined by the

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK 22

central government, but it is clear they are not equally equipped to handle these tasks. The regions coordinate with, and frequently delegate some of their tasks to, the provinces.

Improving the preparedness of regions could be furthered by creating standardized checklists of minimum resource requirements, e.g. each region would be required a certain number of volunteers (such as 5,000) to fight forest fires, a situation awareness room for fire fighters and police, etc. Connections and relations between the Department of Civil Protection and the regions are excellent and their collaboration has worked out well in practice, but there is still quite a gap in the formal and legal arrangements.

Each region affected by a calamitous event has an obligation to guarantee the:

- immediate activation and deployment of the regional emergency convoys and the volunteer organizations;

- management of health care emergency operations, based on the regions own plan, in compliance with the main Criteria and Policies established by the Prime Minister concerning the management of health relief and rescue operations in crisis;

- deployment of its technical experts to check the safety in buildings, survey the damage, evaluate remaining risks, undertake testing of drinking water quality and make assessments of environmental recovery and land reclamation operations;

- participation of its official representatives in the activities of the operational and coordination centres established within the Region;

- management of radio networks for the emergency communication and the activation and coordination of the volunteer organizations of radio amateurs;

- use of primary necessity goods stored under regional competence to provide assistance to the population.

In case there is a need for extraordinary powers due to the actual overwhelming needs in an area affected by disaster and on the basis of requests coming from the local institutions, the region will submit a request for a Declaration of the State of Emergency.

If in order to face an emergency the need to establish a national coordination structure (in Italian: “Direzione di Comando e Controllo” Di.Coma.C.) in situ should arise, the region will, in agreement with the DPC, identify and set up the headquarters needed for this purpose. This might include utilizing the Regional Operational Room, which must guarantee 24 hour operability. The Operational Room provides the national operations centre “Sala Situazione Italia”with a constant update of information related to the activities in progress and communicates the type and quantity of resources needed in support to those already on site as well as maintains the contacts between the operational centres at the provincial and municipal levels.

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK 23

Figure 6. Regions of Italy

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK 24

Table 4. Regions of Italy

North West regions

Area (km²)

Population/ Density

Nominal GDP

Aosta Valley

3,263

126,923

38.9/km2

€ 4 billion

Liguria

5,420

1,614,924

298/km2

€ 41 billion

Lombardy

23,861

9,714,640

407.1/km2

€ 305.5 billion

Piemonte

25,399

4,424,800

174.2/km2

€ 118.7 billion

North East regions

Area

Population/ Density

Nominal GDP

Emilia-Romagna

22,124

4,323,830

195.4/km2

€ 128.8 billion

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

7,856

1,229,992

156.6/km2

€ 34.3 billion

Trentino-Alto Adige

13,607

1,017,246

74.8/km2

€ 30.8 billion

Veneto

18,398

4,885,548

265.5/km2

€ 139 billion

Centre regions

Area (km²)

Population/ Density

Nominal GDP

Lazio

17,208

5,610,709

326.1/km2

€ 160.5 billion

Marche

9,694

1,565,919 (

161.5/km2

€ 38.5 billion

Tuscany

22,990

3,701,243

161/km2

€ 99.1 billion

Umbria

8,456

892,351

105.5/km2

€ 20.6 billion

South regions

Area (km²)

Population/ Density

Nominal GDP

Abruzzo

10,794

1,332,536

123.5/km2

€ 26.8 billion

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK

25

Basilicata

9,995

590,944

59.1/km2

€ 10.5 billion

Calabria

15,081

2,009,301

133.2/km2

€ 32.5 billion

Campania

13,595

5,812,649

€ 94.3 billion

Molise

4,438

320,838 (2007)

72.3/km2

€ 6 billion

Puglia

19,366

4,080,311

210.7/km2

€ 68.9 billion

Islands

Area (km²)

Population/ Density

Nominal GDP

Sardinia

24,090

1,670,219

69.3/km2

€ 34 billion (2007)

Sicily

25,708

5,036,666

195.9/km2

€ 83 billion

 The role of the provinces

The provinces are responsible for the establishment and implementation of the provincial emergency plan, and in certain cases the coordination of relief operations for municipalities within their territories. According to the model adopted by each region, the Rescue Coordination Centre (CCS) of the province is activated in the event of emergencies. In the CCS there are representatives of the region, the prefecture, the province and the institutions, administrations and operational structures dedicated to the management of the emergency. These are responsible for:

- evaluating the needs in the province;

- utilizing the available resources in a rational way;

- defining the type and quantity of regional and national resources needed in support to those already available;

- identifying, if not specified in the emergency planning, the rescue areas.

The CCS must assure unified direction of operations and coordinate actions with those carried out by the mayors of the involved municipalities. If the model adopted by the region does not indicate clearly who exercises leadership of the CCS and there is no specific agreement between the prefecture and the province in force, then this task is assigned to the prefect, who has the general responsibility of ensuring the safety of the people and property. However, the main operational functions remain as follows:

- the prefect is responsible for the activation and implementation of the national resources present on the provincial territory regarding public order and security, exercising this duty with due respect to the subsidiarity of responsibility to the mayors;

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK  26

- the President of the Province is responsible for the immediate activation and utilization of the resources, functioning of the road systems and resolving the problems caused to the networks and service infrastructures and, if so provided by the regional jurisdiction, coordinates the contribution given by the volunteer organizations and maintains contact with the municipalities affected by the event. The provinces are responsible for the establishment and implementation of the provincial emergency plan.

The organizational model at a provincial level includes a single integrated operational room, which on the one hand carries out the tasks established by CCS and on the other hand collects, assesses and disseminates information related to the event and the civil protection response, through a constant exchange between the different operational centres active within the province, the Regional Operational Room and the National Operational Room (SSI).

When an event requires support to the activities carried out by the municipal operational centres and to link the activities carried out at municipal level with those carried out at the provincial level, inter-municipal Operational Centres are activated (Mixed Operational Centres - COM.), which are located in specifically identified structures, sometimes by merging one or more municipalities. The activation of such Centres is the responsibility of the authority responsible for the CCS unless a Head Commissioner in charge is nominated by the government following the declaration of the State of Emergency or the coordination is assigned to the Head of DPC.

The role of the prefects

Within each province there is a prefect who represents the central government and has the responsibility for coordinating and encouraging integration of the organizations responsible for security and civil protection. This means coordinating the very significant central government resources available for civil protection purposes with provincial resources; for instance, this involves coordinating resources from the National Fire Brigade Corps, the National Forest Corps, the Armed Forces, including the Carabinieri, the National Police and the National Health Service and supporting the province and the municipalities with these. A councillor (assessor), who is a political appointee, is responsible for civil protection in the region and province. The provinces do not have a more specified responsibility; however, they receive a contribution of 40 million Euros per year for civil protection purposes, largely related to their planning and coordination role. There is no legal power to force the provinces and municipalities to consolidate their capacity.

The role of municipalities

Municipalities are responsible for the establishment and implementation of the municipal emergency plan. The mayor has the responsibility for civil protection and manages the volunteers and the local police and other local resources, but does not have power over national agencies; he can request assistance from them at any time. The local Carabinieri and volunteer organisations are meant to collaborate with the municipal civil protection service in order to assist the population in the event of emergency. The first emergency response, regardless of the nature, scale and effects of an event must therefore be handled by the local structure, preferably through the activation of a Municipal Operational Centre (C.O.C.). The COC coordinates all the different components operating locally. During the emergency planning phase, appropriate support to the mayors of small municipalities must be guaranteed by the provincial and regional administrations.

The mayor assumes the direction and coordination of the rescue services and assistance to the population hit by a disaster and is in charge of the necessary operations carried out to face the emergency; he does this by implementing the pre-established municipal emergency plan. With the support of the municipalitys personnel and resources and, as needed, by requesting the assistance of

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK 27

other civil protection structures operating in the area (fire brigades, police forces, health facilities, water, gas and power supply institutions or companies, waste disposal companies and telephone companies, local volunteer forces), the mayor is in charge of the following:

- identification of the best location for the municipal operational centre and the waiting and recovery areas, (if not already specified in the municipal emergency plan;

- assessment of the situation and conducting the security or rescue operations, including evacuation of the population;

- health care and assistance to injured persons;

- food distribution and identification of temporary accommodation for homeless;

- continuous provision of updated information on the situation and the behaviour code to the public;

- monitoring the municipal road and traffic system with particular focus on rescue operations and evacuation measures;

- establishing a monitoring point on the municipal territory for maintaining situation awareness.

The capability and organisation of the municipalities is very uneven, and sometimes extremely weak. Depending on the intensity or scale of the event and the local capacity, the operational and coordination centres of the National Civil Protection Service (NCPS) assist the mayor to ensure successful management of the emergency.

 Coordination of the Italian National Civil Protection Service

Chain of command

For the civil protection system to function effectively it is important that the appropriate level of authorities (municipal, regional or national) take charge of operations according to the seriousness of the event and within their respective areas of competence. In an emergency situation it should be first of all made clear who decides and assumes the operational responsibility for the interventions to be carried out. In cases of a national emergency, this role rests with the National Department of Civil Protection (DPC), whereas the Prime Minister assumes the overall political responsibility. In such cases, Italy has established a clear chain of command for disaster management. The coordination of the National Civil Protection Service and the promotion of civil protection activities are entrusted to the Prime Minister through DPC. When a disastrous event occurs NCPS is able, in a very short time, to define the events significance and assess whether local resources are sufficient to handle it.

The first emergency response, irrespective of the nature, scale and effects of an event must however be guaranteed by the local structure. Appropriate support to the mayors of small municipalities must be guaranteed by the provincial and regional administrations. The mayor assumes the direction and coordination of the rescue services and can request assistance of the civil protection structures operating in the area. Depending on the intensity or scale of the event and capacity of the local system to respond, the operational and coordination centres of the operational components and structures of NCPS will be activated across Italy at various levels of responsibility in order to guarantee the coordination of activities needed to manage the emergency.

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK  28

The National Department of Civil Protection (DPC)

DPC is tasked with the protection of lives and assets from damage or possible damage due to natural and technological disasters, short notice and in real-time. These overall objectives, as well as the associated operational needs and requirements, are quite different from those committed to medium and long term risk prevention, sustainable development and environmental protection, even if knowledge, information and experiences are of necessity shared and exchanged between these different domains of government interventions.

The main tasks of DPC are promoting and co-ordinating the whole system; intervening directly in the event of national disasters; defining common intervention and action procedures for the whole system; submitting guidelines for legislation relative to risk prevention; directing the setting up and management of information networks necessary for risk prevention; producing and managing extraordinary regulations – the official orders - needed to conduct emergency interventions and deal with calamities. An early warning system has been created which covers the emergency cycle phases: forecast, monitoring, surveillance, and risk prevention, emergency management and overcoming. DPC together with regions has the role and responsibilities to coordinate this system.

DPC is organized in nine general offices (natural risk, seismic risk, anthropogenic risk, emergency management, ).The daily activities of DPC are dedicated to hazard forecasting and monitoring, surveillance and emergency management for events which need national resources but also to further the development of policies for preparedness and prevention. The development of techniques and methodological and scientific approaches to conducting operations in real time are also major tasks for DPC.

Operational Committee

Another role of DPC is to lead national coordination of responses to highly disruptive events, including natural disaster management. In cases of the most severe types of national emergency (so-called type C events), the Head of DPC convenes on its premises the Civil Protection Operational Committee, which defines intervention strategies, guarantees a coordinated deployment of national resources, and ensures a unified direction and coordination of all emergency activities.

 Figure 7. The Operational Committee at work

The Operational Committee is led by the Head of DPC and comprises representatives of all components of the National Civil Protection Service, including ministries, agencies, institutes, organisations and infrastructure providers. In addition, other important events which require coordination between different national organizations have been put under the responsibility of DPC. The last two G 8 Summits in Italy are clear examples having required the coordination of capabilities from various national organisations. The Operational Committee serves as a structure to ensure and force constructive collaboration as well as horizontal and vertical coherence.

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK 29

State of Emergency

In the legislation, the Council of Ministers (government) is given the exclusive right to declare a State of Emergency and grants the power to issue derogation ordinances of the existing laws to the Prime Minister or the other minister in charge. This emerges from the need to dispose of sufficient legal and intervention tools needed to face natural calamities, catastrophes and other disastrous events i.e. all emergency situations of a large scale or disasters. Moreover, it is based on a concept of civil protection spreading beyond just relief or rescue activities with the objective of including specific tasks in the field of emergency forecasting and prevention, and not only representing a central government derived structure, but rather a common national effort extended throughout the whole Italian territory.

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK  30

 Table 5. The Department of Civil Protection: its 9 offices and 42 services

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK 31

Operations

The Operational Committee is convened by the Head of DPC each time he deems necessary with the aim to ensure unified direction and coordination of the emergency management interventions. The Committee remains in headquarters during an event to be able to work together. DPC provides a situation centre, the National Operational Room (“Sala Situazione Italia”, SSI) that contains the Operational Committee Room, equipped with technical and communication systems to be able to house and provide assistance for the meetings held during the management of national emergencies. The Operational Committee Room structure is, from a technical point of view, a very complex series of inter-operable systems. It is designed and operated to keep pertinent information online in the room at all times, and provides an integrated picture of unfolding events through monitoring surveillance and telecommunications systems. It needs to maintain a high level of reliability and at the same time to enable decisions to bring the different relevant services into action easily and quickly in the event of emergency.

Common planning methodology

In 1998, the National Civil Protection Service adopted the so called Augustus Planning Method. The Augustus plan has provided a single organisational and operational model to both the national and local levels of civil protection services. The national methodology is based on the definition of:

- the capacities and the roles of each specific organization or activity and its field of intervention in carrying out and supporting the response plan needed in different types of operations,

- the procedures for a correct evaluation of an emergency events scale and the response needed to overcome it,

- the action procedures,

- the information exchange activity coordination systems in crisis situations or situations clearly leading to a state of emergency.

 The “Sala Situazione Italia” (SSI): the National Operational Room

The “Sala Situazione Italia”(SSI) at DPC guarantees the reception, collection, processing, the verification of breaking news or information concerning calamity events as well as critical situations in Italy and abroad. Another duty of SSI is to spread information with the objective of alerting immediately and activating the different components and structures of NCPS set up for emergency management, contributing in this way to a prompt activation of the potentially needed measures to face the emergency.

In case of emergencies requiring extraordinary decisions and decisive action, SSI becomes an essential structure in support of the Civil Protection Operational Committee and guarantees the implementation of the Committees dispositions through the structures of the NCPS. The SSI has duty officers from the National Fire Brigade Corps, National Forest Corps, Armed Forces, Carabinieri, National Police, Revenue Police Corps and Coast Guard on standby around the clock in the SSI of DPC. The officers of these groups maintain contact with their respective departments and agencies.

Other components and operational structures can be added to SSI. The diversity of subjects handled within SSI turns it into a main point of reference and a unique coordination centre in its genre. Should the emergency situation require the active participation of other institutions and

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK  32

administrations, SSI which is planned according to a modular structure model is able to respond adequately.

Depending on the situation, connections are established through a dedicated secure system with the relevant regions and prefectures as well as with the entities responsible for lifelines (telecommunication companies water, first aid and health centres, highways, railways, airlines, national volunteers, etc.). In the near future, this system will allow SSI to take part directly in the follow-up actions through the forthcoming regional radio network in order to:

· have access to the sound and data from regional radio channels (signals, selections, etc.) one by one or collectively,

· let the Regional Operative Unit and SSI act collectively both in hearing and in transmitting on the same radio channel,

· allow direct communications for coordination,

· connect the forthcoming regional radio network with a telephone user connected to SSI (integration radio-wire) and vice versa.

Normally, the SSI is actively engaged in the global monitoring of both impending and ongoing emergencies in Italy and abroad through seeking, requesting, collecting, processing and assessing related information on a twenty four hour basis. The Centre also acquires any useful information about interventions and measures carried out at local and regional level. All those activities are carried out in close cooperation with:

· the national operational rooms of the institutional organizations responsible for public recovery operations,

· the civil protection operational rooms of regional and autonomous provinces,

· the civil protection operational rooms at municipal level,

· the local governmental offices (prefectures) and

· the national operational rooms or the monitoring structures of administrations managing public services networks and infrastructures.

In event of an emergency, the SSI is in addition responsible for alerting and, when necessary, activating the operational structures of the National Civil Protection Service, which are called to contribute to managing a specific disaster. The SSI is also responsible for technical support to the Operational Committee in case of impending or ongoing national emergencies. According to the Italian legislation, there are three types of emergency events. Type A events can be managed with the available resources in the municipality where it occurs, whereas type B events require additional co-ordinated resources from outside. When there is a type C event (a national disaster which, because of its intensity and size, requires extraordinary means and authorities), then significant national level resources are made available. DPC conducts operations in C level events through the regions and prefects, or both, and thus maintains in principle the normal line of operational command. The national level resources are made available and intervene under local management. DPC representatives are sent on site when the different local bodies do not have sufficient capacity for managing the event or do not collaborate well with each other. DPC can as needed provide resources in a type B event and help to reinforce the local leadership.

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK 33

Operational procedures

The ability of SSI to perform its tasks and functions efficiently is strictly linked to the alert bulletin released by the civil protection structures and the quality of the information provided. In case of natural or man-made events which requires coordinated action by a number of competent institutions or administrations, the national Civil Protection Operational Rooms, the regional and provincial Operational Civil Protection rooms, the prefectures, the central control structures of the service networks and infrastructure institutions and government administrations and the other operational and coordination centres in Italy are possibly involved in the following:

- upon receiving notice of the event and verifying the news, immediately inform SSI;

- inform SSI on the operations already carried out or programmed to take place, by indicating the type, location, time-frame and resources implemented;

- test the available resources at their disposal and inform SSI;

- inform SSI of extra support needed;

- keep in contact with SSI and immediately update SSI on the event;

- upon request by DPC, draft reports summarizing the activities carried out.

Information not yet transferred or made available to the Regional Functional Centers and in particular to the National Functional Centre, by institutions and administrations coordinating the data collection through monitoring networks must be submitted directly to SSI. Furthermore, each operational civil protection structure and component must provide a constant flow of information, involving from the earliest phases the local institutions by means of the civil protection Regional Operational Rooms.

The Operational Committee is convened by the Head of Department each time he deems it necessary. The aim is to ensure unified direction and coordination of the emergency management interventions. The Committee remains in headquarters during an event to be able to work together. DPC provides a situation centre, the SSI, which contains the Operational Committee Room.

DPC Unified Joint Operative Centre (COAU) – Fire fighting

Each region has the competence to organize its fire fighting system, including forecasting, prevention and planning activities. DPC supports regions upon request. Fire fighting is carried out by ground teams in coordination with the National Forest Fires Air Fleet. The Unified Airborne Operations Centre (COAU)2 is in charge of coordinating the National Air Fleet deployments upon request for assistance made by regional systems to DPC. The office of air activity is coordinated with the Emergency Office, the Weather Office, the CFSE, the Forest Fires Risk Office, etc. In addition, the Forest Fire Corp Liaisons acting within the COAU are directly linked to all Regional Operational Rooms, which are in charge of assessing fire situations and requests for support. It is not the job of the COAU to elaborate risk assessment on forest fire; rather it decides the National Forest Fires Air Fleet deployment strategy in order to meet requests from the region.

The Forest Fires Risk Office within DPC is involved in supporting the activities of the CFSE Forest Fires Sector with technical analysis for the decision makers. All data collected by the CFSE are used as input for the mathematical model used for evaluating the forest fires hazards. The output of the model forms the basis for the daily bulletin which is distributed to all operational Corps and all

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK  34

regional civil protection authorities involved in forest fires fighting. The bulletin is also a decision support tool to allocate the use of the National Air fleet. During the events, the CFSE supports COAU in the definition of the possible scenarios for the active fires. Different satellite technologies such as hot spots monitoring and brilliance analyse are utilized. All these activities are supported by CTSs (technical centres) such as the CIMA Research Foundation - mathematical model development -, the University of Florence (UNIFI) - hot spot monitoring - and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA) - brilliance analyses. After the event, the Forest Fires Risk Office in collaboration with the Agriculture Supplies Agency (AGEA) makes a first evaluation of the damage using satellite technologies. AGEA is in charge of the land use identification and detection, delimitation, qualification of burnt areas with geospatial data performed by satellite or airplane platform.

 International cooperation

DPC has set up a national platform for disaster risk reduction to achieve the objectives set-out in the “Hyogo Declaration” and by the “Hyogo Framework for Action”. It maintains a representative role within the NATO initiative for civil protection. In addition, DPC has a number of bilateral agreements with third countries for cooperation in the field of civil protection, namely in the organization of training activities, exchange of experts, joint exercises related to specific interventions, and the organization of seminars and conferences.

For example, DPC was involved in a 500 000 Euro project on „Strengthening the National Strategy for Forest Fire Fighting in Lebanon. The project aims to strengthen Lebanons a forest fire prevention system at national scale with forecasting capacity of 48-72 hours, including an intensive training phase to increase the know-how of local staff working in forest fire prevention and forest management.

Cooperation through the European Union

DPC is the Italian focal point of the EU Mechanism for Civil Protection to facilitate co-operation in civil protection assistance interventions in the event of major emergencies. Over the next three years DPC is going to be responsible for the organization of the training courses aimed at developing European expertises for assisting both EU Member States and third countries in case of an emergency. DPC also takes part in the EU FIRE 4 Project with the objective to define common operational procedures on the subject of forest fires and seismic events.

Since 1987, DPC has been carrying out international missions in developing countries upon request by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The framework legislation specifies that DPC is competent for operating in international crises in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

DPC has been increasingly involved in international crises in recent years. At the international level, the Italian civil protection system, rather than simply traditional domestic services, has become more and more utilized for international humanitarian assistance missions. This expanded role for civil protection in international crises has been confirmed at regional level by a European consensus on humanitarian aid. The DPCs assistance interventions in third countries are conducted on both a bilateral and a multilateral basis. In order to match its response to an international emergency in the best possible way, DPC implements the system set up for domestic in the receiving country which facilitates a smooth coordination of all available means.

DPC is also involved in the PPRD South (former EUROMED Programme) established in the framework of the Barcelona Process and aimed at developing and reinforcing the cooperation in the field of civil protection in the Euro-Mediterranean region, and in particular in the areas of prevention,

1. THE GENERAL POLICY FRAMEWORK  35

preparedness and response to natural and man -made disasters. DPC is furthermore involved in the Adriatic-Ionic Initiative which encompasses programmes jointly developed by the countries which surround the Adriatic Sea.

International humanitarian assistance missions

DPC and components of the National Service have become increasingly involved in the management of international crises in recent years. Since 1987, DPC has carried out international missions in developing countries upon request by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Italian legislation specifies that DPC is competent for operating in international crises in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In particular they have been used for international humanitarian assistance missions. This expanded role for civil protection in international crises has been confirmed at regional level by a European consensus on humanitarian aid. Such assistance interventions in third countries are conducted on both a bilateral and a multilateral basis. In order to match its response to an international emergency in the best possible way, DPC implements the system set-up for domestic actions in the receiving country, which facilitates a smooth coordination of all available means.

DPC strongly endorses the United Nations (U.N.) leadership in case of emergency interventions abroad, and in principle acts under its aegis when working with UN forces. This consists in working under the overall coordination of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA), with the United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC), the International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG) and the United Nations World Food Programme (UN WFP). DPC has been charged with setting up a national platform for disaster risk reduction to achieve the objectives identified by the “Hyogo Declaration” and by the “Hyogo Framework for Action”. DPC maintains a representative role within the NATO initiative for civil protection. In addition, DPC has a number of bilateral agreements with third countries for cooperation in the field of civil protection, namely in the organization of training activities, exchange of experts, joint exercises related to specific interventions, organization of seminars and conferences.

 Central government sector competencies

The Italian National Civil Protection Service (NCPS) consists of the regions, the provinces, the municipalities, the national and local institutions and all other relevant public and private institutions or organizations in Italy, which are designated in law as its components and operational structures of the Service. Each of these entities acts within its own competence and area of responsibility. The representatives of the components and structures sit on the „Operational Committee and are meant to ensure implementation of intervention activities with respect to their specific competences.

National Fire Brigade Corps

The Fire Brigade National Corps is an essential component of the operational structure for civil protection, and is in charge of protecting the population and preserving the national cultural patrimony from any natural or man-made risk in the whole of Italy. The Corps collaborates closely with the police in the execution of its operational tasks. Command of operations depends on the character of each event. As for the chain of command in the event of emergencies, the responsibility is on the local level and if the scale of the event increases then the provincial level becomes involved and also the prefect. One of the important challenges is to achieve coordination between the different bodies or sectors (health, police, etc.), as they do not operate at the same geographic level; matters of public health, for example, are the responsibility of the region.

The limited number of fire fighters, seen in relation to the population of Italy and compared to other European countries, creates a considerable need for either more part time employment of fully

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trained fire-fighters or volunteers trained for fire fighting. However, given the divergent economic and cultural conditions, it seems to be possible to involve sufficient numbers of local volunteers from the northern parts of Italy. In the southern parts of the country, there are only professionals and recruitment of volunteers is very difficult. This is clearly a weak point in the system and means that the problem of insufficient resources and the difficulties to recruit enough persons also due to the limited economic resources available should be addressed. One possible solution could be to employ part time fire-fighters.

The same technical and operational rules apply everywhere throughout the system and as human resources are mobile it is easy to connect and communicate with all localities and allocate resources where needed. Local fire brigades belong to the National Corps of Fire-fighters. Of the 716 000 incidents in 2007, less than 30% were fires, and the rest were accidents of different types. The Corps also has the responsibility for the fire and rescue services at the 13 international airports with a staff of 3.100 and CBRN preparedness in general.

A debriefing is held each morning between the centres of the National Corps and DPC exchanging information on the situation in Italy and emergency events that have occurred in the past 24 hours. This is conducted over a fibre optic secure infrastructure built for cold war purposes and to resist a nuclear attack. The National Corps receives an up-dating on the situation from DPC. There is no intention to introduce a TETRA based communication system for the emergency services as they are costly, in particular due to the topography in Italy. The present analogue system is considered more flexible in giving access to different groups.

A database is maintained which stores images and audio in digital so that knowledge and lessons learned from past accidents can be recalled from the archives to help manage the current accident. In the event of an emergency, information is shared on an ICS model. All fire fighters go through a six months basic training course which is supplemented by more specialized training and training for higher levels of responsibility in their career, especially for officer and commander positions. Guidelines are issued for the regional, provincial and municipality levels, and Italy has among the lowest rate of victims in fires in the world.

Prevention is managed in different ways. For chemical safety and explosives as well as for the transport of dangerous goods, there is a commission which exercises responsibility. Risk assessments and planning are performed at the regional level with universities providing technical inputs.

Italian National Forest Corps

The Italian National Forest Corps (FC) exercises environmental monitoring and pollution control and certain police duties. FC conducts forest fire fighting as well as search and rescue operations in the forests and mountains. The responsibilities for these actions which are part of the National Civil Protection System lie on the regional level; on the local level, the municipalities and provinces conduct the immediate emergency response. The forests cover 10 million hectares or one third of Italy; 60% of the forests are privately owned and 40% are public property. As much as 10% of the forests are national parks. There are 8120 employees in FC which has an air fleet, mainly used for surveillance and forest fire fighting, search dogs and other resources necessary for the tasks. A meteorological system METEOMONT monitors the mountain areas (300 locations are nodes for information on wind and other meteorological data) and provides a snow and avalanche forecast service, i.e. risk assessment and early warning.

Mapping of the forests is planned on the regional level but implementation is on the local level which is obliged to assess the risks and have maps indicating the areas where there should be no commercial or residential exploitation of land. Most parts of Italy are covered by risk maps and the

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mountain regions have a good notion of the risks; however, the many stakeholders expressed the opinion that this is not always the case in some southern parts of Italy.

The national framework rules are specified in the regional and local regulations. There are however no efficient sanctions to prevent inappropriate use of land. The number of forest fires has decreased since 1985 when new legislation was issued prohibiting building in burnt areas during periods of 5, 10 or 15 years after the fire. Logging is prohibited for 10 years in such areas. Municipal authorities can however give permission to build in cut down areas. Forest fires are becoming more dangerous due to encroaching land use development. People seek to build on the borders to national parks. Stakeholders informed the Review Team that about 50% of the forest fires are thought to be set purposefully.

There is no single administration with exclusive jurisdiction over the forest and mountain areas. The National Forest Corps intervenes as a police force, but each police force has its own field of action. There are several actors providing search and rescue services in the mountainous areas, which are coordinated locally. The National Fire Brigade Corps intervenes at an early stage to extinguish forest fires, which is most important to enable efficient control of impacts, and coordinate itself with other services.

The Armed Forces

The Italian Joint Operations Headquarters (COI) deploys forces from the Army, Navy, Air Force and Carabinieri. The COI is the main interface office for the Armed Forces with the DPC. Regions, prefects, provinces and mayors can also request assistance directly from the Armed Forces for the management of emergencies. There are no earmarked forces for civil protection activities. Requests are granted on the ground of feasibility, availability and opportunity on evaluation in each single case. Earmarking of resources for this purpose would lead to poor quality and problems concerning funding of the forces. The military forces maintain their own management structure when they are put at disposal for such operations but are under the operational control of the mayor, or any other relevant body which is responsible in the chain of command and control established for each emergency situation. For instance, if DPC needs additional support for forest fire extinguishing, the request goes through the COI.

The types of civil protection events in which assistance is rendered are for instance immediate aid to rescue human lives, response in major emergencies such as a Stromboli volcanic emergency which affects many persons living in the vicinity, forest fire fighting, handling unexploded bombs and managing other major security events. Planning and exercises (for instance the one in Stromboli) have been conducted in collaboration even though it is hard to plan for something when you dont know the impacts in advance. Scenarios are however used for planning large scale events and for providing assistance in general to regional, provincial and local response. When the scenarios occur, the Operational Committee considers what resources are needed to handle the particular event and COI deploys resources accordingly. DPC pays for military support within the frame of the funding allocated in a decree on a State of Emergency. Some military resources which are procured in particular for participating in disaster management are also financed with the support of DPC.

The public weather forecast and meteorological service in Italy is managed by the Air Force. The radio and television weather forecasts receive their raw material or data mainly from the Air Force but also from other sources and use the data as they wish. The civil protection system has a strong capacity to exploit the meteorological data together with seismic and hydro-logical data for real time prediction and forecasting purposes, for early warning and alerting and in the operational information and decision support system. This is carried out by DPC and the regions as an element in their risk management. DPC issues warnings to the public through the media and through the chain of command

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to all concerned. The prefect informs the local authorities and the mayor the individual citizens and society in general.

Police Forces

The Carabinieri (120 000 persons) is a military police force conducting normal police duties in Italy together with other police services, for instance the Financial Police (68 000 persons), which comes under the authority of the Minister of Economy and Finance, and the national, regional, provincial and municipal police (105 000 persons). At each level, the Carabinieri would be involved in emergency management and in large events the prefect will coordinate the Carabinieri with the region. The widespread structure of its territorial organization, which is a peculiar and traditional feature since the Carabinieri was established in 1814, assures a capability, in case of natural disasters, for giving immediate warnings and a first aid in the suburban areas of Italy, especially where the Carabinieri represents the only operating service of the central government.

The Carabinieri has a major task in assuring the continuity of public order and security in areas that have been struck by natural disaster by preventing and repressing crimes (looting). The Carabinieri participates in emergency activities and has “Emergency units” located all over Italy with competence in the region where the unit is deployed, and when required also in neighbouring regions, and can delimitate damaged areas, conduct surveillance to protect public and private properties, control and regulation of road traffic, secure aid convoys and conduct surveillance on first aid material. In the event of major disasters, it has become necessary to establish a forensic unit to be deployed on site for the identification of victims, gathering information concerning their families and undertaking “post mortem” examinations.

Besides the Carabinieri, Italy has several other police organisations with different roles related to civil protection, namely: the Financial Guard, the National Police, the Coast Guard and the regional Police in five of the Autonomous Regions, the provincial police and the municipal police. Even though the Financial Police force falls under the responsibility of the Minister of Economy and Finance it is a military corps. It deals with taxation and finance crime, smuggling including drugs, border control, illegal immigration and customs. The Financial Police has access to boats, ships and aircraft for patrolling the boarders and the Italian territorial sea.

The National Police is a civilian service acting at national and regional level, and has the responsibility for public security, regular policing and law enforcement and patrolling the Italian highways. Along with patrolling, investigative and law enforcement duties, it patrols the Autostrada (Italy's express highway network), and oversees the security of railways, airports, bridges and waterways.

The Italian Coast Guard, which is a branch of the Italian Navy, has responsibilities related to the use of the sea, mostly in the field of commercial and recreational navigation. These responsibilities include search and rescue at sea, maritime safety (including port state control) and protection of the marine environment in close collaboration with the Ministry of Environment. Among different important tasks are fishery surveillance and control as well as acting as the maritime police in areas under Italian sovereignty. The Coast Guard also carries out duties for other public services.

The main duties of the regional police in five of the autonomous regions and of the provincial police are related to enforcing hunting and fishing legislation as well as wildlife management and environmental protection. The municipal police have duties related to enforcing local regulations and traffic control as well as maintaining public order by reacting to petty crime and other anti-social behaviour.

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Environment and Land and Sea Protection

The Ministry of the Environment and Land and Sea Protection and the Natural Environment Protection Directorate are directly responsible for the forest fire fighting sector (AIB) for the protection of designated areas, National Parks and State Natural Reserves. The AIB planning in these areas is based on guidelines issued by DPC regarding forest fire emergencies and under the direct responsibility of the regions and prefectures as well as the State Forest Corps in case of urban-forest interface zones. A significant element for fighting forest fires is the realization of a municipal land register of the areas subject to fire emergencies and local emergency plans with the respective interface areas. Park institutions can only solicit the negligent municipalities located within the protected area. The Heads of the National Parks Service are in charge of supplying information regarding their protected territories and AIB planning. This information is essential in order to carry out an active fight against fires, which relies on a thorough knowledge of the roadway and fire fighting infrastructures, the water accessible areas, etc. in addition to the type and geographical position of the vegetation directly or potentially of interested in relation to the fire.

Since 1999, the Ministry of the Environment has activated a public service aimed at the prevention of and fight against marine and hydrocarbon pollution along the entire Italian 7,500 km long coast line, including the islands. The Ministry disposes of a tested intervention plan based on a system of equipped naval units prepared to confront environmental pollution emergencies. In case of serious hydrocarbon pollution, fighting operations carried out by the naval forces are called upon by the responsible marine commander and authorized by the Ministry of Environment in agreement with the Harbour Command Office of the Coast Guard. In case of crisis the responsibility to act is under the General Director of the Natural Environment Protection. The entire system's coordination is defined by department's legal guide lines; in case of national emergency, the direct responsibility is passed on to the Department of Civil Protection, which becomes the institution in charge of coordinating the whole system.

National Health Service

The Ministry of Health is the central body of the Italian National Health Service (NHS), which operates at different levels with fundamental obligation to guarantee health care as a fundamental right of the individual. The regions and autonomous provinces plan and organise in their own territory the health services and the activities for health protection, co-ordinating and monitoring the actions of Local Health Care Authorities and Hospitals. The Local Health Care Authorities plan and organise health care in their own territory assuring the delivery of care through public and private accredited structures. There are some semi-autonomous public agencies providing specialised care and operating at national or interregional level in the form of Hospital Trusts.

The Ministry of Health has two general departments responsible for the organisational structure of the NHS. The Department for the health care structure, research and the Ministry's finances and staff deals mainly with the requirements for certifying and carrying out NHS activities, for testing agreement protocols for instance between regions and universities and the identification of needs of health care professionals and biomedical research. The Department for health care, public health, animal health and international affairs deals with all aspects related to citizens health, including prevention and prophylactic care, production, commercialisation and control of medicinal drugs, food safety and safety in workplaces. The NHS is made up of bodies and organs at different institutional levels, each contributing to reaching the objectives for the protection of public health.

NHS contributes to civil protection through the assessment of needs and priorities for action to be taken and provide, in collaboration with the representatives of the autonomous regions and provinces, the information concerning human health, logistics and technological resources available in the area

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affected by the event, identifying their location, characteristics and equipment, time frame for action and modalities for use. Furthermore, NHS will propose the potential deployment of expert teams for the evaluation of specific risks, identify potential public health care measures to protect the population and activate reference centres, laboratories and other institutions highly specialized in diagnostics and therapy.

 Technical-scientific support and research

To fulfil its task of identifying the types of events, their geographical distribution and the probability of occurrence and risks, DPC has established a structured system of collaboration with the scientific community and research through the “Commissione Grandi Rischi”, the Major Risk Commission, which is focused on risk assessment. This Commission takes a multi hazards approach and deals with four phases of the emergency management cycle, forecasting, monitoring, surveillance and risk prevention of both natural and technological disasters.

Ministries, universities, public research institutes and centres, and public administrations combine forces with the DPC through different forms of cooperation, agreements, understandings and working teams, in order to define both prevention and forecasting measures for the different types of risk. For the fulfilment of the operational responsibilities of the Italian Civil Protection System, technical, scientific and industrial structures are involved with the aim of ensuring the necessary technical-scientific support.

Technical-scientific support

An early warning system plays a very important role in supporting the decision making of authorities in charge of alerting the different components and operational structures of the National Civil Protection Service. The system operates under the direct control of civil protection authorities and is used to activate the emergency plans of provinces and municipalities.

The National Early Warning System for floods, landslides, forest fires, volcano activities and hydro-meteorological risks in general is provided centrally by DPC and in the regions by developing a national network of “Centri Funzionali”, Functional Centres (CFSEs, a network of civil protection multi-risk functional centres for forecasting and surveillance of effects to support the civil protection authority decision making). The National Functional Centre and the Regional Functional Centres, which are supplemented by the Competence Centres (Centri di Competenza - CTSs, centres for technological and scientific services), are involved in risk assessment and management and together constitute the network of receptors of any kind of warning. Links have been established between CFSEs and CTSs for the supply of services, for instance monitoring activities in real time.

Depending on the natural phenomena (seismic, meteorological or volcanic activities) there are different levels of comprehensiveness for permanent surveillance and monitoring. The alert level of an event can be updated following its real time evolution. Earthquakes generally are abrupt phenomena and a specific reaction procedure has been set up for these, which starts immediately after an event is detected. Thus, the preparedness is focused on the integrated and shared activities addressed to forecast, monitor and conduct surveillance of the events as well as their effects in the short term and real-time.

DPC is charged with the task of issuing guidelines and the definition of procedural and operative standards of the overall management of the system and of the provision of the necessary reserve or substitute capacity when a regional CFSE is not in operation. Regional CFSEs are planned to be located in every Italian region or Autonomous Province. The DPC is supporting the regions in the establishment and development of Regional CFSEs. Apart from the National Functional Centre, only

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nine of the 21 Regional Functional Centres are at present fully operational, seven partly operational and five not operating at all. CFSEs are the operative support units for the collection, elaboration and exchange of every type of data and they provide a multiple support system for the decision making. They also participate in research and development and conduct training of the regional civil protection personnel.

CTSs provide services, information, data, elaboration, technical and scientific contributions for specific topics (meteorological, hydro-geological and hydraulic, volcanic, seismic and manmade risk, data from satellites, etc.). The aim of CTSs in the early warning system is to establish a mechanism to share data in accordance with the best practices in the risk assessment and management field between:

- at the central government level: the Competence Centres (scientific institutions providing support and services), the Ministry of Infrastructure, the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, the National Research Centre, all the government components of the Operational Committee and the National Functional Centre;

- at prefecture level: Prefectures Territorial Offices of Government or main Prefecture of a region (UTG)

- at region/municipality level: regions (20 regions and 2 autonomous provinces) with both planning and operative duties, Regional Functional Centres (data collection and analysis, support to National Functional Centre). In particular regions provide the general indications for emergency planning and the general policies for risk mitigation; provinces and prefectures issue the provincial emergency plan according to the regional indications, municipalities are responsible for civil protection activities, organization of local emergency plans coordinated with the provincial plans. Regional Agro-Meteorological services (ARPA-SIM) have the role of regional hydro meteorological centre and national reference centre for the Italian National Civil Protection Service.

Research and development

The National Department of Civil Protection (DPC) exercises a strong supporting role in research and development programmes and has been steadily involved in projects carried out together with regions, provinces, municipalities and competence centres at European, national and local levels, aimed to improve knowledge and instruments for risk mitigation. The foremost examples are its support of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), the Laboratories University Network of Seismic Engineering (ReLuis) and the European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE).

In the past, civil protection received scientific data based on specific requests ; because of its new technical capacities, it is now able to participate in planning and management activities, not only for single research projects but also in integrated and shared information systems, supported by the most advanced technologies – often specifically identified for this purpose. Research groups have been set up and work on the basis of available research results and the aims defined in the legislation, namely safeguarding human life and health, property, national heritage, human settlements and the environment from different natural or man-made disasters. The research groups focus on the hydro-meteorological hazards, volcano activities and seismic risks and have undertaken the following tasks:

- the definition of possible event scenarios and risks and identification of observable precursors to such scenarios,

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- the definition procedures for assessing the vulnerability of different areas in Italy and procedures for warning,

- the definition of codes and rules for land-use planning and new buildings, for rehabilitation or retrofitting of the existing buildings and for renewed planning of urban areas at risk.

The European RISK-AWARE and AMPHORE Projects for instance produced over the period 2003 - 2006 very good results in improving monitoring capabilities, particularly enhancing the use of radar data. DPC also contributes significantly to European Union policy development by participating in major risk management research projects as well as in the preparations for the implementation of the INSPIRE Directive3 and above all in the European Union Global Monitoring for Environment and Security Programme (GMES).

Within the framework of GMES, DPC contributed to set up the EURORISK PREVIEW Project (development of satellite products devoted to civil protection activities for several natural and technological risks). DPC is currently responsible for the operational and civil protection and humanitarian user validation activities within the SAFER Project. These are aimed at realizing the European core system (pre-operational phase) devoted to the distribution of services, products and satellite goods related to natural and humanitarian emergencies. DPC is also involved in the operational phase of the LINKER project with the task of facilitating user-friendly SAFER products at European level.

As far as the tsunami risk in the Mediterranean is concerned, DPC is going to take part in the forthcoming UNESCO Intergovernmental Coordination Group (IOC) for the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAMTWS) Project, both as a national focal point and as a responsible for surveillance and early warning in the central Mediterranean area.

 Critical infrastructure

Italys industrialized economy relies heavily on well functioning infrastructure whose components are extremely complex and interdependent, including industrial supply chains (just-in-time), communication services, energy and water utilities, transportation networks, and financial payment systems. Natural disasters tend to have severe effects on critical infrastructures leading to very significant damage and loss. Such consequences have also been the result of the severe electricity failures, transport disruptions, major production interceptions and telecommunications failures that Italy has suffered in the past.

The Italian National Civil Protection Service includes the National public and local institutions and all other relevant institutions or organizations, both public and private, present on the national territory, which are designated as the components and operational structures of the Service. Other components and operational structures can be added to SSI which is planned according to a modular structure concept, should the emergency situation or disaster require the active participation of other institutions and administrations. Critical infrastructures which form part of NCPS and have well defined specific tasks in an event to take immediate actions and actions to be carried out within 12 and 24 hours respectively are presented in Annex 2.

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Volunteer organisations

In 2001 the President of the Republic issued Declaration 194/2001 regulating the participation of volunteer organisations in civil protection activities. As many as 50% of the personnel involved in an operational response to a disaster may be volunteers, including volunteer fire fighter brigades, 15% military units (previously conscripts but now professionals which means that the available persons have been reduced dramatically), 25% professional fire-fighters and 10% other forces (technical, i.e. police, medical care etc.). Only volunteers who have received specific training and have adequate equipment should be involved in fighting forest fires and employed as fire-fighters in general. Other types of volunteers have tasks such as taking care of children and elderly. The Italian National Forest Corps and the National Fire Brigade Corps coordinate the action between ground forces and the air delivery by the Unified Airborne Operations Centre (COAU).

The volunteers are supported by an important labour policy that guarantees their return to normal working duties, but there is no legal obligation of an employer to allow a volunteer to leave the job more than a limited number of days for qualified service per year. Usually employers have no objections unless the person performs an indispensable function. The volunteer force is growing and is now about one million persons (approximately 100-150 thousand can be mobilized within two hours). The Lombardy region, for example, can count on over 16 000 civil protection volunteers from private associations or local town groups registered in the Regional Registry of Civil Protection Volunteers.

Costs for volunteers training and maintaining their administrative costs are covered if the organisation is registered in a national registry. The regions send inspectors to check that equipment, skills, etc. of the organisation are adequate, and an audit is undertaken before an application for the status as a national volunteer organisation is be approved. The registration leads to benefits such as tax exemption, eligibility to participate in an emergency. There are in all 27 National Volunteer Organisations (active in at least six regions) and 3667 local volunteer organisations. Funding can normally be received on a project basis for a specific topic or task.

The volunteers are represented on the Operational Committee. The Red Cross in Italy is considered to be something between a volunteer and a government organisation, as the government pays the salaries of its personnel. This organisation has 4,000 official employees and 100,000 volunteers.

The volunteers can also be used in international interventions; volunteer medical teams were for instance sent to Indonesia and Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami. But there are certain challenges related to sending volunteers abroad i.e. the possibility for them to stay away for long periods and language barriers. Volunteers are generally trained locally, and should ensure that volunteers know how to avoid being an obstruction or burden to professional responders. They have to be informed about what actions they cannot undertake and understand the risks present in earthquake, forest fire and flood situations, before they can learn what actions they may take outside the red zone where entry is limited to experts and fire brigade personnel.

The specific tasks of the volunteer organisations, the National Alpine Rescue and Spelaeology Corps, the Italian Red Cross and other organisations in NCPS in the event of an emergency or disaster, are considerable. They include providing information about the event and the number of volunteers and resources that are active in the affected areas as well as to plan for potential deployment of additional resources. They may be called upon to participate, upon request by the competent authorities, in rescue operations of the population and all the necessary activities to reinstate ordinary living conditions, such as preparation and distribution of meals and shelter for the rescue teams and the affected population.

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 Chapter 2 - Analysis of Italy’s civil protection system

The civil protection system in Italy draws from numerous actors at central, regional, provincial, and municipal levels of government, acting in concert with private actors such as volunteer organisations, the scientific research community and operators of critical infrastructure, to provide efficient preparation and effective response to disruptive events. The National Civil Protection Service (NCPS) is a legally established institution that strengthens coherency of action amongst these various actors and the diverse sets of expertise and/or resources that they provide.

 The central administrative structure for civil protection and the legislative context

The mission of the National Civil Protection Service is the protection of lives and goods from damage, or possible damage, due to natural and technological disasters by taking appropriate response action at very short notice and in real-time. Depending on the geographical scale of an event, the potential for disruption and the capacity of the local civil protection actors to respond and manage it, the operational and coordination centres of the components and structures of the NCPS are activated to manage the situation. The President of the Council of Ministers (known outside Italy as the Prime Minister) is entrusted with the coordination of NCPS and the promotion of civil protection activities through the Department of Civil Protection (DPC), in what is described as a functions-based (instead of competences-based) “architecture”. This model for coordinating and mobilizing the wide range of national capacity needed to handle a disaster is a unique approach compared to the public administrations in most, if not all, other countries.

A clear chain of command for disaster management has been created. In 2002, legislation conferred full authority to the Prime Minister to take action upon the out break of an extraordinary emergency situation. This is done after consultation with the President of the region involved, with an agreement to issue a „Declaration of state of emergency. The need for this action is based on an evaluation of the level of life threatening risk and a request by the Head of the Department of Civil Protection. The Prime Minister thus has the authority to decide on the involvement of the available components and operational structures of NCPS, each of which acts within their own area of competence and responsibility. When an event occurs that requires the intervention of civil protection services, an assessment is made in a very short time of its magnitude and whether local resources will be sufficient to manage it or whether broader support is required.

The first emergency response, irrespective of the nature, scale and effects of an event must be guaranteed by the local structure or bodies, followed by provincial and regional administrations. Appropriate support to the mayors of small municipalities is supposed to be guaranteed by the prefect. The mayor assumes the responsibility for the direction and coordination of the rescue services and can request assistance from the civil protection structures available and operating in the area, for instance

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fire brigades, police forces, health facilities, water, gas and power supply institutions or companies, waste disposal companies, telephone companies and local volunteer forces.

Co-ordination for the whole civil protection system is undertaken by the National Department of Civil Protection (DPC), which intervenes directly in the event of national disasters; defines and implements intervention and action procedures common to the whole NCPS; establishes guidelines for legislation related to risk prevention; takes action to set-up and manage the information networks necessary to achieve risk prevention; and elaborates and manages the dissemination of exceptional regulations - the official orders - needed to conduct the emergency interventions and deal efficiently with the calamities. An early warning system has been created by DPC which covers all the emergency management cycles phases i.e. forecasting, conducting surveillance and monitoring, risk prevention, emergency response and overcoming or recovery. DPC also provides a structured system for combining the operational components and structures of the NCPS with the scientific research and development communities.

DPC has the national coordination role for disaster management which it exercises together with regions, and as mentioned before the Head of DPC is responsible for convening the „Civil Protection Operational Committee. This Committee, which meets at DPC, has the task to ensure a unified direction and coordination of all emergency activities by defining the intervention strategies and guaranteeing a coordinated deployment of the National resources to deal with the disaster.

The Operational Committee is led by the Head of DPC and consists of all the relevant civil protection actors, including the ministries, agencies, institutes and organisations and infrastructure providers. The Committee remains in DPCs headquarters during the initial phases of an event to be able to work closely together. DPC provides a situation centre, the SSI, that contains the Operational Committee Room, endowed with different features and able to support in the best possible way the Meetings of the Committee during the management of major national emergencies. Adoption in 1998 within the entire NCPS of the so called Augustus planning method has provided both the national and the other levels with a single organisational and operational model.

The SSI at DPC has the task to guarantee the reception, collection, processing, analysing and testing of news or information concerning emergencies and crises as well as other critical situations in Italy and abroad. Another duty of SSI is to spread information with the objective of alerting immediately and activating the different operational components and structures of NCPS set up for emergency management. SSI contributes in this way to a prompt activation of the potentially needed measures and resources to face the emergency.

In the event of emergencies which require extraordinary means and powerful support to local structures or bodies, SSI becomes an essential instrument which supports the Civil Protection Operational Committee and guarantees the implementation of its decisions and dispositions of resources through the structures of NCPS. The SSI has duty officers from the National Fire Brigade Corps, National Forest Corps, Armed Forces, Carabinieri, National Police, Revenue Guard Corps and Coast Guard on standby around the clock in the SSI of DPC. The duty officers maintain contact with their respective departments and agencies. Other components and operational structures can as needed be added to SSI. Depending on the situation, connections are established through a dedicated secure system with the relevant regions and prefectures as well as with the entities responsible for critical infrastructure or lifelines (telecommunication companies, water utilities, first aid and health centres, highways, railways, airlines, national volunteers, etc.).

DPC conducts operations through the regions and prefects or both and thus maintains in principle the normal line of operational command. The national level resources are made available and intervene under local management, i.e. the province or the mayor. DPC representatives are sent on site to assist

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when the different local bodies do not have sufficient capacity for managing the event or it is found necessary because they do not collaborate well with each other.

Findings related to the administrative structure

The Review Team draws the following general conclusions about the Italian civil protection system on the basis of its interviews, on site visits, analysis of relevant legislation and informative material made available by the different components and operational structures:

The Department of Civil Protection serves as a unique and coherent national crisis management organisation. It provides dynamic and efficient leadership to the National Civil Protection Service with efficient central government leadership and access to all national resources needed for dealing with disasters. It ensures a unified direction and coordination of all emergency activities by defining the intervention strategies and guaranteeing a coordinated deployment of national resources in accordance with a single organisational and operational model, the Augustus planning method, which is implemented at both the national and local levels.

Italy has adopted a multi-risk approach to large scale disaster management covering the full range of possible emergency situations. This approach fully integrates scientific research and technological expertise into a structured system for maintaining its excellent early warning capacity, covering forecasting, surveillance and monitoring. Its high level of situation awareness effectively feeds into emergency response operations and overcoming or recovery. Further, DPC provides strong encouragement and support for knowledge institutes and centres for research and development at national and European level.

The NCPS follows an efficient system for scaling up and adapting the command and control capacity to guarantee a coordinated deployment of national resources in accordance with the needs of each disaster situation. It has demonstrated this capacity not only for interventions in Italy, but also through important and significant contributions in such actions within the European Union, and also in international humanitarian assistance actions in third countries suffering from severe disasters.

Whereas in most other European countries responsibility for emergency management falls under the Ministry of the Interior or Ministry of Justice, in Italy the NCPS benefits from its position under direct authority of the Italian government and the Prime Minister. It further benefits from the fact that DCP is situated within Italys institutional equivalent of the Cabinet Office. As in Japan, where the level of risk for natural disasters is extremely high, and in the United Kingdom, the overall coordination and responsibility for communities remaining safe and secure is a task of the Prime Ministers Cabinet Office. The more general differences between the three countries seem to be that the role of DPC is even geared for intervening directly in operational functions whereas the Cabinet Office of Japan is involved in emergency prevention policies and that of the United Kingdom is very focused on contingency planning.

There are clear tendencies in different countries to adopt an approach similar to Italys whereby the central government is enabled to enhance coordination between different levels of government administrations for safety and security. The United States Department of Homeland Security, which merged 22 agencies of the federal government to better coordinate their missions and programmes into a single, integrated agency focused on protecting the American people and their homeland. The comprehensive national strategy seeks to develop a complementary system connecting all levels of government without duplicating effort. The Russian Federation, which suffers from a considerable number of natural disasters within its large territory, has established a specialized Ministry of Civil Defence, Emergencies and Disaster Relief which has considerable resources at its disposal for its missions under different conditions including arctic and sub-tropical climate conditions to respond to

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all types of disaster. In Finland the Ministry of Interior now consists of the Police Department, the Department for Rescue Services, the Migration Department and the Border Guard Department. Iceland has brought together its National Crisis Management Centre with the 112 Emergency Call Centre, the Police Communications and Command Centre and the Icelandic Maritime Traffic Service as well as involved administrations at a common location. In Sweden a development in this direction has started with integration at regional level of the common 112 Emergency Call Centre and the “blue light authorities”.

Opportunities for improvement:

The Review Team found a need to consider possible further improvements in a number of areas of significant importance that could help the system of civil protection function even more appropriately and efficiently. Even though some of these areas could be considered to fall formally outside the field of competence according to the present legislation, these matters are of fundamental importance for the overall results linked to its objectives.

Most important is the general need to achieve a minimum standard of capacity for civil protection activities in all parts of Italy, although specific risk conditions will require allowing for local differences between municipalities. Solutions are required for dealing with the problems related to the fact that some municipalities have a low or even very low and unsatisfactory level of capacity for emergency management. This is frequently the case in regions and municipalities with very high risks for natural disasters which causes major concern.

The Review Team found that one reason for the unevenness of civil protection capacity could be that the more qualified response resources in public administrations are still part of the central government services. Even though the constitutional reforms transferred operational responsibility to the local level, there was not, as could have been expected, also a transfer of the emergency response functions and resources to the municipalities, where they are usually located in other European countries. These resources, for instance the fire and rescue services and police (the municipality police has a very limited area of competence), are not directly accessible for the responsible mayors when needed and can have comparatively long, indeed unsatisfactory, response times even in densely populated areas. The access to voluntary civil protection resources, which cannot as a rule be used for example for more qualified fire fighting or hazardous materials tasks but play a major role in dealing with the general tasks in natural disasters, differs considerably and in particular in the South of Italy it has been difficult to recruit volunteers. It strikes the Review Team as unusual that the size of the National Fire Brigade Corps which is the most important component for any emergency management is comparatively small taking into account the size of the population and the level of risk in Italy.

The impacts of earthquakes that have occurred in recent years upon the building stock have been exacerbated to a great extent because their design is not in conformity with seismic codes, nor have they been retrofitted to reach an equivalent safety standard. and the importance of increased efforts for prevention in Italy also faces a considerable challenge to protect its preserved and huge cultural and environmental heritage. The study visits and interviews clarified that it would be very beneficial if NCPS were to have a mandate for prevention policies with a similar role as in disaster management. The formal responsibility for implementation of safety or security measures should then still remain with different sector ministries and agencies and regions, provinces and municipalities. DPC has however relevant capabilities and experiences in prevention which could improve the situation in this respect significantly. DPC is already involved in the prioritized efforts to improve safety in schools, hospitals, etc. both in new construction and by retrofitting.

Finally, the Review Team found that better and comparable implementation of prevention policies that reduce the exposure and vulnerability of Italys population to natural risks is needed. The

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urban planning codes need to be reinforced by robust enforcement measures such as inspections, higher incentives to retrofit and harsher penalties for violations such as building on previously burnt land or in areas at risk, etc.

NCPS has to a great extent received its present form since the millennium change and continued development of the system is urgently required and has to be undertaken to achieve an equivalent high standard of preparedness in the whole of Italy, naturally adapted to the particular risks for disaster in each region. NCPS should therefore be continually improved, for instance through the establishment in all the regions of fully operational Functional Centres (CFSEs) for forecasting and surveillance of effects to support the civil protection authority decision making. These Regional Centres form a national network of vital importance together with the National Functional Centre, supplemented by the Competence Centres (centres for technological and scientific services, development and transfer – CTSs), which are involved in risk assessment and management.

Legislation

The Review Team has found that the legislation has grown and been improved successively based on experiences and lessons learned from the disasters that have occurred and now consists of different laws, decrees and ordinances, etc. This makes it difficult to see their interrelationship and to obtain a clear overview of the scope, organisation, responsibilities and obligations related to risk management, not only for persons with a legal background, but also and even more so for those in NCPS implementing the legislation and the general public.

Opportunities for action: The interest in elaborating a more streamlined or holistic and transparent civil protection legislation should be given high priority. Such legislation could have the form of a framework law supplemented by more specialized coherent legal instruments covering specific areas of the law and implementation ordinances and guidelines. Such a package would facilitate implementation and form a strong tool for robust enforcement measures such as reinforced inspections. A more streamlined and transparent legislation would most probably lead to more efficiency in the whole NCPS as well as facilitate for each actor to better understand his/her role in the service and fulfil obligations more expediently and precisely. The legislation should thus be streamlined into and substituted by a holistic and coherent legal framework and system, covering the Italian National Civil Protection Service and setting minimum targets for civil protection, to achieve transparency and a comprehensive overview and understanding for all persons involved in the Service and of the general public.

 Implementation of civil protection responsibilities in the regions, provinces and municipalities

The regions are responsible in general for civil protection and in particular for risk assessment, emergency forecasting and prevention programmes for their geographical area. The Review Team observed that the diverse historical, geographic and socio-economic conditions of the regions of Italy, in comparison to many other European countries, has been taken into account in the delegation of responsibility to the regions, provinces and municipalities in accordance with the so-called principle of subsidiarity. However, differences in fiscal resources, environmental conditions and institutional peculiarities of the Italian regions have led to unequal ability to implement their responsibilities throughout Italy.

The Review Team observed flexible models for implementing contingency planning, emergency response plans and preventive measures when it visited the civil protection authorities for Liguria, Emilia-Romagna, Sicily and Campania regions. The Liguria and Campania regions have fully operational Functional Centres (CFSEs), which is not the case in the Sicily. In contrast, the Review Team observed that some regions may even delegate some of their tasks to provinces when they are

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particularly well organized and possess strong capacities, for example as the Emilia-Romagna region does in the province of Parma. Again, differences from the expected norm were evident in Genoa, where the prefect had been given prominent coordination role for the province.

Flexibility amongst administrative levels has also been implemented in Sicily, where some municipalities have initiated and established inter municipal collaboration for civil protection planning in the absence of provincial powers in civil protection. These municipalities work together at a sub-provincial level, frequently around a strong municipality with more capacity and resources, or when the need for collaboration in an area between municipalities is particularly strong, for instance in the area around the Etna Volcano. Similar solutions can be found in other parts of Europe. In Sicily the need for inter municipal plans and collaboration is being emphasized, and this year the region has provided funding for inter municipal cooperation, for example for forest fire fighting.

Certain civil protection authorities at the provincial level pointed out that they lack of power to execute prevention and contingency planning policies. To redress this situation would require strengthening their enforcement powers, such as inspections and the ability to levy penalties for violations or neglect of responsibilities. Within each province, the prefect represents the central government and has the responsibility for coordinating and encouraging integration of the organizations responsible for security and civil protection. This means coordinating the very significant central government resources available for civil protection purposes, but provinces and municipalities should not be allowed to over rely on these resources and neglect their civil protection responsibilities.

Regions submit a request to the Prime Minister for a Declaration of the State of Emergency when a disaster triggers the need for extraordinary resources. If the need to establish in situ a national coordination structure should arise in order to face an emergency, the region will, in agreement with the DPC, identify and set-up the headquarters needed for this purpose, including consideration of the possibility of utilizing the Regional Operational Room.

During a „State of Emergency the Regional Operational Room must guarantee 24 hour, around the clock operability. The organizational model at a provincial level includes a single integrated operational room (CCS), which on the one hand carries out its own tasks and on the other hand collects, assesses and disseminates information related to the event and the civil protection response, through a constant exchange between the different operational centres active within the province, the Regional Operational Room and SSI. When an event requires support to the activities carried out by the municipal operational centres and the establishment of a link between the activities carried out at municipal level with those carried out at the provincial level, inter-municipal Operational Centres are activated (Mixed Operational Centres - COM), which are located in specifically identified structures, sometimes by merging one or more municipalities. The activation of such Centres is a duty of the authority responsible for the CCS unless a Head Commissioner in charge is nominated following the „Declaration of a State of Emergency or the coordination is assigned to the Head of DPC.

Opportunities for action: The flexibility demonstrated amongst different administrative levels in maintaining a sufficient level of civil protection capacity despite a lack of resources is laudable. However, it is necessary to ensure that the roles and responsibilities of the region, prefectures and provinces be completely clear and well known to other bodies in the broader NCPS that might have to interact with them to ensure efficient risk and disaster management.

Capacity of the municipalities

Stakeholders made it clear to the Review Team that many small municipalities lack sufficient capacity and resources of their own to protect the population satisfactorily in the event of a disaster

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requiring a qualified response at short notice. The time factor related to the development of an event and its consequences will vary considerably from one type of emergency to another. This problem is not unique to Italy, but probably more severe than in other European countries due to the high level of risk for very severe emergency situations in small municipalities. The Review Team has found that a sufficiently strong and efficient organisation, in the form of NCPS with a task to ensure a unified direction and coordination of all emergency activities with DPC promoting and co-ordinating the whole system, is of utmost importance in Italy for the protection of lives and goods, including the very significant cultural heritage from damages or possible damages.

The lack of capacity amongst municipalities in some countries, such as France and the United Kingdom, has led to a broader regionalisation of the responsibility for the emergency or fire and rescue services, for instance in Frances „Départements. In Finland the municipal rescue services have been regionalised in the whole country, while in Sweden a common municipal organisation for fire and rescue purposes is being established successively on a voluntary basis between municipalities, a reorganisation process that takes considerable time to realize. The Review Team considered that such actions could have considerable benefits also for the rational management of other public services, for instance education, social services, etc.

In different European countries the fire and rescue service is often a municipal responsibility and forms the basis for the whole emergency response organisation. This organisation paradigm consists of professional fire-fighters on full time or part-time employment, and can be supplemented in some countries by volunteers with different tasks depending on their training and competence. The fire and rescue services cooperate with other services such as the police and health care and municipal social services in different forms.

On the other hand, as a consequence of the constitutional reform, the mayor has been given by law the responsibility for civil protection in the municipality and manages the volunteers and the local police and other local resources. The local Carabinieri and volunteer associations will collaborate in different ways with the local civil protection in order to support the population in the event of emergency. In other words, the mayor has the responsibility, but does not have control over national agencies and the more powerful resources. There is a difference between the tasks of the mayor who has operational leadership and the availability of necessary resources which are under the competence of other public administrations, which can only be requested to assist.

A fundamental question for the Review Team is why the decentralisation process was not accompanied by a transfer of resources to municipalities to support the competences it requires of them, such as civil protection. Even the municipality of Milan had very limited civil protection capacity until a couple of years ago, due to a lack of political interest in these matters. In the past several years there has, however, been vast improvement of the coordination between national, regional, provincial and municipal authorities and the volunteer services. Nevertheless, the Review Team finds that there is an urgent need to improve the conditions for the mayor, who has such a key role in the emergency and disaster management, to make it possible for him to execute satisfactorily his responsibility in disaster situations.

Opportunities for action: In line with the development in other European countries, it would be beneficial to start a process to improve the civil protection capacities for small municipalities with limited resources, in particular in the South of Italy, by facilitating cooperation with nearby communities. To compensate for the very uneven, and in many cases extremely limited, capacity and resources at local level for responding to emergencies, a stronger leadership role should be established for the provinces. Alternatively the development of collaboration agreements between municipalities should be promoted, in particular when the latter face a common major risk of disaster. Another

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solution for improving the situation would be a municipal administrative reform to consolidate neighbouring municipalities.

Support to the municipalities

The stakeholder interviews informed the Review Team that central government services that are necessary for emergency management are not always accessible in the time needed, or adapted to the needs of the municipalities. In general, the municipal resources only consist of the local police, local health services and other local resources. The local Carabinieri and volunteer services support the local civil protection service in the event of an emergency. Volunteers cannot, however, fill the role of qualified fire-fighters, and should not from a workers health and safety aspect be called to do so without extensive education and training. The panel interviews also indicated that in some southern parts of Italy, recruitment of volunteers is more difficult than in the northern parts of the country, due to lack of tradition and high unemployment. Given that a short response time is critical in many situations, municipalities and even provinces need to be assured of quicker access, at short notice, to central government resources, such as the National Fire Brigade Corps, police and other organisations. The Review Team was informed that in a suburb of Naples with 60.000 inhabitants, the fire brigade could only reach the town centre after 25 minutes. In many OECD countries, it is considered necessary to maintain response times in densely populated areas of less than 10 minutes and certainly not exceeding 20 minutes.

Opportunities for action: Measures should be taken to make the national resources for emergency management support more directly accessible in emergency situations at short notice to the municipalities in order to supplement gaps in their civil protection capacity, and take charge of the more qualified response actions than those for which volunteers and other local resources are adequate.

Inspection system

Stakeholders expressed the opinion that provinces do not have the necessary formal powers to improve the performance of municipalities that do not always fulfill their civil protection duties in certain important respects, for instance emergency planning. Inspection is a regular instrument implemented in other European countries to ensure appropriate emergency management. Such control is even carried out for instance at the European Community level as a regular tool in relation to EU Member States in different policy areas. For example, the implementation of the European Seveso II Directive4 requires on-site prevention and preparedness measures, and off-site emergency planning adherence to the legal requirements is subject to forceful inspection and enforcement. The introduction of an inspection system within the area of civil protection, supplemented by necessary means of sanctions to improvement measures, should therefore be considered not only for emergency contingency planning matters, but also in respect to prevention measures including reconstruction and retrofitting. It is recognized this matter cannot be resolved only within the framework of NCPS.

Opportunities for action: An inspection system, supplemented by the competence to implement sanctions, should be introduced to ensure that provinces and municipalities meet minimum standards for civil protection contingency planning and emergency preparedness, as well as the implementation of prevention measures, including standards for the reconstruction and seismic retrofitting of buildings.

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Chapter 3 - Risk Assessment and Prevention

 Analysis of the general context

When the Italian National Civil Protection Service (NCPS) was established in 1992, forecasting and prevention measures were included in the scope of civil protection. The concept of prevention is no longer limited to the rescue of persons in emergency situations and reconstruction or restoration, but also includes measures to limit the major risks in Italy. There has been an important shift in the legislation from a system that focused primarily on post emergency intervention to a system that includes risk assessments, forecasting and risk prevention measures. The tasks and responsibilities for these upstream activities involve civil protection actors at central and regional levels of public administration and the scientific community.

Pre-disaster planning and forecasting activities are supported by the network of Functional Centres (Centri Funzionali) and Competence Centres (Centri di Competenza). The former are institutions that provide scientific and technical expertise about the nature of hazards, vulnerability of populations and assets, and the development of technical measures to reduce them. The latter are forecasting and monitoring services at regional level (supplemented by the National Functional Centre in Rome), which are dedicated to prevision and surveillance of hydrogeological, meteorological, seismic and volcanic phenomenon for the purpose of supporting the decisions of civil protection authorities with hard data.

Through these networks of “delay-time” knowledge institutes and “real-time” forecasting organisations, the NCPS has fully integrated scientific research and technological expertise into a structured system that maintains a sufficient early warning and management capacity, covering the emergency management cycle phases: surveillance, assessment, forecasting, monitoring and risk prevention, emergency management and overcoming or recovery. Ministries, universities, public research institutes and public administrations combine forces with the National Department of Civil Protection (DPC) through different forms of cooperation, agreements and working groups, in order to define prevention and forecasting measures for the different types of risk.

To identify and assess the different types of events, their geographical distribution and the probability of occurrence and risks, DPC has established collaboration with the scientific and research community, including a national commission for the forecasting and prevention of risks called the Major Risks Commission (MRC). MRC is focused on risk assessment, takes a multi hazards approach in dealing with surveillance, forecasting, monitoring and prevention of risks for both natural and technological disasters. In the event of disaster, the Head of DPC issues a request to the President of the MRC to immediately summon the full commission, adding as necessary a contribution on the

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event which has been provided by external technical experts. In the reports exchanged between the Operational Committee and the MRC, risk scenarios and their potential development are defined as well as scientific data regarding the event which will be collected and guaranteed by the National Functional Centre housed within DPC. This functional centre also assesses the need to benefit from further expert or scientific opinions and to organize the participation or to provide the services of the Competence Centres.

Opportunity for Action: The Italian National Civil Protection Service could serve as an excellent platform and tool for creating a more satisfactory situation for risk assessment as it consists of the relevant disaster management actors and has the collective experience of handling disasters. By bringing together its relevant competences, NCPS could facilitate efficient management and ensure the most rational use of available resources for this important task within the surveillance and assessment, forecasting, monitoring and risk prevention phases of the emergency management cycle. This would not change the responsibilities of the different actors charged with risk assessment and prevention policies within their respective areas of competence. In this context it should be recognized that the scope of the research and development in which DPC and the research centres and institutes take part often is quite wide and will cover the whole risk management cycle which includes and addresses risk prevention as a major element.

 Early warning systems

In 2004, operational guidelines were issued defining the tasks, responsibilities and organisation of the National Early Warning System, and the development of the Functional Centres and Competence Centres network. The Functional Centres were thus intended to be developed as civil protection multi-risk functional centres. The Early Warning System, which is based on a distributed architecture and under the direct control of the civil protection authorities at different levels, plays a very important role in supporting the decisions taken by the authorities in charge of alerting the different components and operational structures of the NCPS in the different emergency management phases and activating the provinces and municipalities civil protection emergency plans.

DPC and regions work in tandem through the national network of Functional Centres (CFEs) to provide the national early warning system, which produces forecasts and conducts surveillance for floods, landslides, forest fires, volcanoes and hydro-meteorological risks. These centres support the decision making of civil protection authorities, and together they constitute the network of receptors for any kind of warning. The link between the Functional Centres and Competence Centres is based on contracts with the aim of supplying necessary services around the clock throughout the year. Some of the CTSs carry out monitoring activities in real time, for instance INGVs national seismic network and UNIFI for SAR monitoring of the Stromboli volcano.

For some natural phenomena (e.g. earthquakes, meteorological events or volcano activity), there is permanent surveillance and monitoring that is articulated to different levels of precision. The level can be updated following the evolution of an event. Earthquakes generally are abrupt phenomena and a specific reaction procedure has been set up for these, which starts immediately after an event is detected. Thus, preparedness focuses on the integration of forecasting, monitoring and surveillance activities, as well as the effects of events in the short term and real-time. For example, emergency management for seismic events is supported by three main surveillance seismic networks that rapidly improve the knowledge of a seismic event as soon as it occurs: the seismometric network of INGV, the soil strong-motion network of the National Accelerometric Network (RAN) and the Seismic Structure Observatory (OSS) of DPC. While INGV can provide full basic information on magnitude and location of an earthquake in a few minutes, the RAN and OSS networks provide more detailed remote data that enables DPC to evaluate the locally felt intensities.

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The public weather forecast and meteorological service in Italy is managed by the Air Force. The radio and television weather forecasts receive their raw material or data mainly from the Air Force but also from other sources and use it as they wish. The NCPS has a strong capacity to exploit the meteorological data together with seismic and hydrological data for real time prediction purposes, for early warning and alerting and in the operational information and decision support system. This is carried out by DPC and the regions as an element in their risk management. DPC issues warnings to the public through the media and through the chain of command to all concerned. The Prefect informs local authorities and the mayor, the individual citizens and society in general.

As noted earlier, DPC is charged with the administrative task of issuing guidelines and the definition of procedural and operative standards, i.e. non real-time disaster management or so called delayed time and the overall management of the system. Alternative capacity is provided by the National Functional Centre when a Regional CFSE is not operating or not yet operational. Regional CFSEs are planned to be located in every Italian region or Autonomous Province. CFSEs are the operative support units for the collection, elaboration and exchange of every type of data and they provide a multiple support system for the decision making. They also participate in research and development and conduct training of the regional civil protection personnel. DPC is supporting the regions in the establishment and development of Regional CFSEs. CTSs provide services, information, data, elaboration, technical and scientific contributions for specific topics (meteorological, hydro-geological and hydraulic, volcanic, seismic and man-made risk, data from satellites, etc.). The aim of the participation of CTSs in the Early Warning System is to establish a mechanism to share data in accordance with the best practices in risk assessment and management field.

The daily activities of DPC are dedicated to hazard forecasting and monitoring, surveillance and emergency management for events which need national resources but also to further elaboration of non-structural policies for preparedness and prevention. Another task of DPC is the development of techniques and methodological and scientific approaches to conducting operations in real time. Research groups have been set up to work on the basis of available research results and the aims defined in the legislation, namely safeguarding human life and health, property, national heritage, human settlements and the environment from different natural or man-made disasters. The research groups focus on the hydro-meteorological hazards, volcano activities and seismic risks.

 Risk assessment activities and prevention policies

In Italy earthquakes are the natural hazard causing the highest toll on human life and damage to infrastructure and property. The 2009 Abruzzo earthquakes are a recent reminder of this recurrent phenomenon, as over 300 lives were lost and devastating destruction took place in the regional capital of LAquila. It has been reported that the resulting destruction of buildings and other constructions was due, to a great extent, to their not being designed according to modern seismic codes. The Abruzzo earthquakes, and other tremors that have occurred in recent years, demonstrate the importance of undertaking preventive measures to reduce disaster damage.

The Review Team has found that measures to improve the general populations safety from risks associated with natural disasters urgently need to be undertaken, and that these measures also need to take into account how to protect and preserve Italys cultural patrimony and environmental assets. Such resources hold tremendous significance for Italys national economy, notably its tourist industry, which is one of the fastest growing and most profitable sectors. With 43.7 million international tourist arrivals and total receipts estimated at $42.7 billion, Italy is the fifth major tourist destination and the fourth highest tourist earner in the world.5 A particular challenge for disaster damage reduction is the cost of seismic retrofitting a very large number of vulnerable buildings and constructions that attract tourists, many of which are delicate and could be easily damaged in the retrofitting process.

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Such efforts are being undertaken by DPC and have been prioritized to improve safety in schools, hospitals and other types of public buildings, both in modern buildings with sub-standard construction and the retrofitting of older buildings of particular cultural value. A plan has been launched to assess the seismic safety of strategic and critical construction in Italy, and initiatives to seismically rehabilitate about 1500 of the 42 000 public schools in Italy. Even these targets, however, will not suffice to reach a more satisfactory result in an acceptable time frame.

Another difficulty relates to the considerable number of new buildings that were constructed in violation of building codes, or with an inadequate control system during their construction. Moreover, former seismic codes were insufficient to ensure modern safety needs (though modern codes do provide for these), thus leading to unsatisfactory performance of even 10-20 years-old buildings, as the reports from the Abruzzo Earthquake indicate.

The panel interviews indicated that it would be very beneficial if the NCPS were to be attributed a broader competence related to prevention policies (even if formal responsibility for practical implementation would remain with different ministries and agencies, regions, provinces and municipalities). Although the public and mass media have on occasion blamed DPC for the present unsatisfactory level of risk, the Review Team finds, to the contrary, that very significant improvements and cost benefit solutions would be achieved if the NCPS were attributed a similar role for prevention as is the case for crisis management, including the duty to ensure a unified direction and coordination of all emergency activities. In particular, DPCs experience derived from forecasting and monitoring activities of natural phenomena, delivery of risk assessments to guide disaster management, and involvement in the reconstruction or recovery after disasters (including the financing of such measures) place it in a strong position to provide relevant input.

Opportunities for action: The role of the Italian Civil Protection Service in risk assessment and prevention policies should be clarified and widened to include benchmarking as a supplementary, voluntary tool to facilitate comparable risk assessment. DPC should, in addition to the present task of influencing regulation and codes, be given the role to act as a “champion” for a safer society and provide opportunities to consider also more forward-looking aspects to detect the signals that constitute an early warning of emerging risks. The task should cover the whole risk management cycle and be given legal support. Account could be taken of the fact that the research and development being conducted in Italy and in the EU context is already more focused on the holistic risk management cycle, which deals more extensively with risk prevention, than the more limited emergency management cycle. Sufficient resources for ensuring that the task can be executed satisfactorily should be allocated to DPC.

Land use planning

The Review Team has during its study visits and interviews found that land use planning requirements for construction and building, which are generally seen as a very useful and efficient tool for prevention, not least against the consequences of natural disasters, are quite frequently set aside. The most extreme example of this is the habitation increase in the high risk area around the Vesuvius Volcano, from a limited amount of houses in 1944 to the present population in the area of about 550.000 persons. In Italy land use planning can due to the high level of risk be of particularly significant importance as a long term policy tool in protecting the population and property from the consequences of flooding, forest fires, landslides or erosion and avalanches, volcano eruptions and earthquakes.

A new law has introduced a registry of burnt areas in which subsequent building is prohibited to improve the forest fire situation. The number of forest fires in Italy has decreased since 1985, when the new legislation was issued prohibiting building in burnt areas for periods of 5, 10 or 15 years after the

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fire and logging for 10 years. Mapping of the forests is carried out at regional level, but implementation of land use policies is performed at municipal level, and a decree prescribes the obligation to assess the risks and to produce maps indicating the areas where there should be no exploitation. Many of Italys mountainous and forest areas are particularly dangerous in respect to forest fires and avalanches; hence the Forest Corps, provides hazard maps for avalanche zones.

The municipalities are supposed to use these maps to guide decisions on building permission but there are different perceptions of risks. In most parts of the mountainous areas there is high awareness of the risks for natural disasters, but this is not the case in some southern parts of Italy. The national framework rules are specified in the regional and local regulations, but there are no efficient sanctions for inappropriate use of land, and some municipal authorities give permission to build in areas at risk and also in cut down areas. Some municipalities with sufficient risk awareness have commissioned private companies to develop risk maps. There is legislation in some regions that calls for the availability of risk maps and the need to control building in burnt areas. At the national level, information campaigns have been undertaken in schools, aimed at raising awareness amongst teachers, pupils, and through them the general public.

In regard to seismic risks, DPC and the regions recently issued guidelines for microzoning in land use planning, which form a part of a multi risk approach. Seismic microzoning studies are aimed at identifying areas where soil amplification effects and co-seismic effects (such as seismically induced landslides, soil liquefaction). However microzoning has been very rarely implemented up to now, except in the case of post-earthquake reconstruction.

The physical planning or land use planning is regularly given an important preventive role in other European countries - for instance in the Netherlands and the Nordic countries - and safety is a criterion for where and how to build. Even if this is the case, it is however unfortunately possible to find examples in all countries of where the exploitation interests have been allowed to overrule the security or safety interests and requirements. These are and should however to be seen as exceptions.

On the other hand in certain situations and geographical areas, the safety requirements are upheld and implemented very stringently. One example is any activity which falls within the scope of the European Seveso II Directive.6 The provisions in the Directive which are controlled by forceful inspection systems are implemented in all European countries, also in Italy.

Autumn is the period when the risks for landslides and floods caused by heavy rainfall and erosion in steep hillsides are greatest in Italy. Forest fires are most frequent during the summer and are mainly caused by strong winds and on the other hand by arson or intentionally initiated fires aimed to clear wooded space for building purposes, which are estimated to be the reason for up to 50% of the forest fires. These fires are becoming more dangerous due to encroaching land use development, i.e. people seek to build close to the borders of forests and national parks.

The obligation to take into account safety conditions through inter alia adequate land use planning as a basis for granting permission to construction and building should be strengthened through regulation in the legislation and efficient sanctions introduced to hinder inappropriate use of land. The implementation of these legal provisions needs to be monitored more efficiently by the proposed inspection system.

Opportunities for action: Measures should be undertaken to ensure that safety aspects are taken into account more extensively through legislative provisions to ensure adequate land use planning and building requirements and that the implementation of these legal provisions are monitored by the proposed inspection system. As indicated earlier, this important issue is to be considered within a broader policy context that cannot be resolved only within the framework of NCPS.

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The NCPS excels at the phases of the risk management cycle within its mandate. Its effectiveness is hindered, however, by two factors outside its control that have sometimes led to unjustified criticism about the ability of DCP in particular to manage emergencies. First it should be noted that the prevention phase of risk management is largely not its responsibility. Despite a robust legislative corpus in Italy that provides for structural and non-structural measures to reduce exposure and vulnerability to natural risks, a lack of enforcement of these rules has often accentuated damages. For example: building permits require designs to conform to modern seismic standards, but the process is undermined by a lack of thorough and independent inspections. The collapse of the quite modern hospital in LAquila meant that many victims of the 2009 earthquake needed to be transported by the emergency services to much more distant medical facilities. Moreover, regulations and guidelines for land use planning to prevent exposure to natural risks are often violated. This not only endangers human lives and property, but also increases the operational burden of the emergency services that are spread too thin during peak seasons, especially for floods and forest fires.

Second, Italys devolved public administration promotes the autonomy and flexibility of local government, but many of its 8,104 municipalities possess insufficient response resources to meet their civil protection responsibilities. This is both a funding problem and an issue of spatial reorganisation, since many municipalities must consolidate capabilities to achieve an adequate level of response capacity, and where this is not the case, an additional burden is placed on the DCPs task of co-ordination.

Prevention policies that reduce the exposure and vulnerability of Italys population to natural risks need better implementation. Urban planning codes should be reinforced by robust enforcement measures such as inspections, higher incentives to retrofit and harsher penalties for violations such as building on previously burnt land. Municipalities should have clearer obligations to meet some minimum capacity standards to respond to the risks they face with support coming from the central government to compensate for the added resource burdens that devolvement has brought to bear.

Functional Centres

The interviews clearly indicated the very important role CFSEs play and can play in achieving the objectives of NCPS, for instance for risk assessment, forecasting and early warning. The participation of the CFSEs together with the other actors in achieving a common situation awareness, providing necessary information and decision support both at central and regional levels, participation in research and development and conducting training of the involved disaster management personnel in the regions contributes significantly to the National capacity for efficient crisis management. Of the planned 21 CFSEs in the Italian regions and Autonomous Provinces, only nine CRSEs are at present fully operational.

Opportunities for action: In order to realize the goals which the NCPS has set up for itself, very high priority should be given to the establishment of fully operational functional centres (CFSEs) in all 20 regions and 2 Autonomous Provinces, taking into account that the level of risk for natural disasters, even though there are certain differences in the types of risk, is high in more or less all Italian regions. CFSEs are a prerequisite for fulfilling the need to allow the Italian National Civil Protection Service to act with equivalent efficiency in the event of disaster in all parts of Italy.

DPC participation in Research and development

DPC develops techniques and methodological and scientific approaches to conducting operations effectively in real time. The Review Team has found that DPC exercises a strong role in research and development and has been steadily involved in projects carried out together with regions, provinces, municipalities and Competence Centres at European, national and local levels, aimed at improving

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knowledge and instruments for risk mitigation. The interviews and visits of the Review Team demonstrated clearly the importance of this active involvement of DPC and collaboration with Italian institutes and centres in research and development, nationally and internationally and within different EU Programmes, for the development of the Italian National Civil Protection System (NCPS).

Examples of this are the major risk management integrated research projects as well as the preparations for the implementation of the INSPIRE Directive and above all the GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) Programme. The contribution of the DPC and Italian centres and institutes, often with support from DPC, with their knowledge and experience can obviously be beneficial in general, but will also lead to significant improvements of the national capacity on a continual basis.

It has been evident for the Review Team that the DPC has in comparison with most other countries a higher capacity in respect to research and development due to the significant integration of scientific research and technological expertise and work within its organisation. This is reinforced by the established collaboration in different forms with universities and public research institutes and centres also in different research projects conducted at different national levels and within European Programmes.

Opportunities for action: Italy should continue to play an important role in the development of techniques and methodological and scientific approaches to conducting operations effectively in real time. The active involvement of DPC and the Italian institutes and research centres, in collaboration with each other and within EU Programmes, for instance, should be continued and given high priority in the future. Involvement in such activities can contribute significantly to the knowledge base and experience of Italian civil protection actors.

Addressing climate change

In the course of panel interviews, the Review Team was informed that climate change aspects could have significant importance for civil protection activities in Italy due to the consequences of more intensive and heavy rainfall and flooding, heat waves and drought, which in parts of the country have already begun to be observed. Stakeholders claimed that managing emergencies has raised awareness in the civil protection community that natural phenomena pose an increasing risk to the built environment, but this has not often filtered through to authorities with responsibility for urban and rural planning. Panel interviews suggested that long term prevention requires linking civil protection activities to decision making processes for land use planning and soil quality, as well as control procedures to ensure that public safety objectives are met.

The Review Team was informed that the National Service has set up an overall strategy and has built in capacity to face the major risks resulting from climate change both in terms of prevention and forecasting. One such risk is increased torrential rainfall. While precipitation levels have remained stead on an annual basis, variance has fluctuated greatly, with longer dry spells and more intense rainfall over shorter time periods. The early warning system for hydro-geological risk consists of about 2 500 detecting points. For heavy rainfall or flash floods, there are 23 meteorological radars covering the Italian territory, which allows the steady monitoring of precipitation and also permits forecasts and warnings to be provided over the short term (1 to 6-8 hours).

Monitoring systems for environmental risks support civil protection decision making at national, regional and provincial level with data collected automatically by meteorological radar in real time, which is necessary to make a composite view of precipitation. The observation systems also provide hydro/geo forecasting capabilities and knowledge of the vulnerability of territory. There is recognition that climate change has led to a need for different types of forecasting and modelling. A system is

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under development to model water levels in the Po river based on projections that incorporate climate change.

In regard to heat waves and their effects on forest fires and public health, the Review Team found that the early warning system daily bulletins to appropriate health authorities when needed. Furthermore, DPC is actively involved and supports epidemiological monitoring and research conducted by the National Centre for Prevention of Heat Health Effects, where it contributes to the assessment of heat wave related mortality. The development of a simulation model to explore changes of heat wave related mortality under different scenarios is meant to aid decision makers to consider adaptation policies in light of the health impacts of climate change.

Opportunities for action: Climate change aspects should be given much more consideration and visibility within the National Service through a dedicated action programme, which more strongly includes and involves municipalities. The impacts of climate change at local levels need to be better assessed and incorporated into hazard mapping both to plan for an adequate amount of emergency management capabilities and to inform the public about the changes it should expect.

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Chapter 4 - Risk Communication and Information to the Public

Effective risk communication encourages responsible behaviour, such as foregoing building or undertaking commercial and recreational activities in areas exposed to particularly hazardous natural phenomenon (e.g. volcanoes, forest fires and avalanches). When surveillance or monitoring technology enables the prediction of a severe event that will hit a specific area with a high level of probability, for example the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, risk communication with the potentially affected population is initiated and primarily executed at local level through the mayors office.

Rick communication before an event occurs

Organisations throughout the National Civil Protection Service actively conduct outreach activities to provide the public with general knowledge about risks and to encourage them to improve their own resilience. The Review Team was presented documentation from every level of government, (central government to municipalities) that promotes public awareness about risks.

The Department of Civil Protection (DPC) manages a number of activities aimed at the development of a culture of civil protection through sensitization campaigns, exhibitions and publications; e.g. through distribution of its pamphlet entitled „Civil Protection in the Family, which describes various types of natural hazards, how to prepare for them, specific actions to take in the course of an actual event, and what authority to call for help. At the local level, risk communication tends address the most pressing needs, for example in the town of Graterri a pamphlet is distributed containing detailed zones for fire hazards and instructions for what to do in case of a wildfire. The city of Portici has published information on emergency response to an eruption of Vesuvio, including evacuation instructions.

There are also more specific programmes directed at vulnerable groups, for example school children and tourists. The city of Napoli, together with the association „Stop Disasters, publishes a multi-risk pamphlet with information on preparing for disasters and what to do in case of an event. The region of Lombardy published a „Self-protection Handbook for Thunderstorms and Avalanches in English that is made available to non-Italians who frequent the regions famous skiing resorts and backpacking areas.

There is resistance in some parts of Italy, however, to making risk maps generally available to the public, which stems from the position that the public should not be made unnecessarily afraid or induced to panic. Instead, focus is placed on providing directions on what measures to take during an emergency. In the opinion of the review team, on the contrary, risk communication has been shown in other countries to increase active involvement and support from the public for necessary improvements in prevention policies.

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In some countries, for example France, risk communication activities are the result of the right of citizens to be made aware of the risks to which they are subject; sometimes called the “community right to know”. It should also be recognized that when information is intentionally withheld from the public in an open society, it can cause considerable distrust in the public authorities. The National Risk Register in the United Kingdom, for example, alerts the public to the types of events the government considers to be the highest actual risk in order to incite the public to take measures to increase its own resilience. This is thought to have had the effect of increasing the level of public trust in government, which is important to ensure cooperation during the execution of emergency response activities. Another example of a proactive public information approach in a society facing a very high level of risk is the policy in Japan wherein the municipalities are obliged to disseminate risk maps to the population which also indicate adequate action for instance evacuation routes to be taken in the event of disaster.

In Italy the level of risks from natural phenomena are relatively high compared to other European countries. To achieve the goals of risk communication, WHO Safe Community Programmes could be a very useful tool to create better public participation at the local level. Such programmes should not be limited to developing awareness of major risks only, but aim also at increasing safety and security in general. For this reason, they should also cover minor day-to-day risks, which over time and taken in aggregate lead to higher numbers of fatalities and injuries than one-off, large-scale emergencies.

Opportunities for action: In addition to the existing programmes at central government level, a programme for providing the public more specific information about local risks should be considered, including dissemination of risk maps to create public risk awareness and knowledge on adequate action to take in the event of disaster or accident.

Risk communication in emergency time

In the event of a disaster, DPC actively promotes the dissemination of information to the affected public and ensures timely and complete information concerning the event. This includes making the population aware of the relevant risk scenarios, and instructions on self-help measures to take. DPC has a Press Office and Communication Service that disseminate information directly and also by liaising with the national and foreign media. Direct responsibility for risk communication and provision of information to the affected public is primarily placed with the mayor of the affected municipality.

DPC is establishing an in-house call centre, which is under development and will be used in the event of disasters. The aim of the call centre will be:

· to provide information to the population concerning the event and the primary measures to safeguard the population;

· to handle calls of potential importance to improve the management of emergencies.

The public utility radio channel Isoradio covers most of the Italian highways. It regularly broadcasts traffic reports, weather conditions, railway information and public service reminders at regular intervals around the clock. During emergencies, Isoradio also provides listeners with updated information about the incident as it develops.

112 Emergency call number

In Italy there are several possible telephone numbers to call different emergency lifeline services, for example 112 calls are answered by the Carabinieri. Requirements under Directive 2002/22/ EC7

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call for Member states to ensure that the 112 number is well known by the citizens, which is difficult when many different emergency call numbers are maintained, and leads to immediate action by the competent authority for providing the necessary help. The common European Union 112 emergency call number serves the purpose of facilitating urgent help for an individual in an emergency situation or disaster anywhere in the EU through one single call. This is of particular importance in a country like Italy where the important tourist industry draws so many foreigners, most of whom would not know of any other number to call than 112 should they find themselves in urgent need to obtain help.

It is now possible to use 112 for emergency calls in all EU Member States. In Northern Europe, 112 is or is becoming the sole emergency call number i.e. a common number for all emergency services which also serves as in impetus for enhanced collaboration between these. Another development is to introduce modern digital Tetra communication systems and integrate these with the 112 services which also facilitates cross sector cooperation in emergency response operations.

The Review Team has found that DPC is strongly convinced about the importance of having a single European Emergency number and DPC is committed to reinforcing the Italian capacity to address all phases of disaster as well as Early Warning Systems which can benefit from the implementation of 112 in all EU Member States.

It can be noted that Italy initiated already in 1968 a process to simplify and standardize the operational liaison between the services which resulted in the adoption in 1976 of 112 for use as a common emergency number for the operational centres of the Carabinieri. The citizens were able to request help in dangerous situations from the Carabinieri and would when relevant be transferred to other competent structures or informed how to contact these. When 112 was adopted in 1991 as the single European Emergency Call Number, measures were taken to make it possible to receive the calls also in foreign languages. The use of 112 increased from about 2.7 million calls in 1992 to about 6.2 million calls in 2004.

Since the infraction procedure initiated by the European Commission in 2006, the Italian government has been developing initiatives aimed at fully complying with the European Union law on the 112 Emergency Call Number. In particular, Italy issued a Decree dated 22 January 2008, which provided for a first phase of implementation of the European Directive within the Italian system. This Decree was implemented within the Province of Salerno to serve as a test for a subsequent implementation in the remaining Italian provinces. However, due to financial constraints, the project had to be suspended in July 2008.

It is important to highlight that following a sentence issued by the Court of Justice on 15 January 2009, the Italian government has promoted the establishment of an Operational Interministerial Working Group coordinated by DPC, which is currently setting up a strategy aimed at full implementation of the Universal Service Directive and thus comply with the sentence issued by the European Court of Justice. The Working Group consists of representatives of the major ministries and institutions involved in the implementation, such as the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry for Economic Development.

Opportunities for action: Full support should be given to the efforts to achieve the full implementation of the EU 112 Emergency Call Number for the benefit of the individuals seeking urgent help in Italy.

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5. PREPAREDNESS AND REAL TIME RESPONSE  64

Chapter 5 - Preparedness and Real Time Response

 Analysis of the general context

The Prime Minister issued on 3 December 2008 Operational Guidelines for Emergency Management to regulate the information flow between the different actors involved, the activation and coordination of the components and structures of the Italian National Civil Protection Service (NCPS), to describe the organizational model of the emergency management at a national level to support and adequately contribute to the local civil protection response, and to guarantee the necessary operational coordination of emergency management.

According to the model adopted by each region, the Rescue Coordination Center (CCS) of the province is activated. In the CCS there are representatives of the region, the prefecture, the province and the institutions, administrations and operational structures dedicated to the management of the emergency. The CCS must according to the guidelines assure unified direction of operations and coordinate actions with those carried out by the mayors of the involved municipalities. If the model adopted by the region does not indicate clearly who exercises leadership of the CCS and there is specific agreement between the prefecture and the province in force, then this task is assigned to the prefect who has the duty of ensuring the safety of the people and the goods.

Each region affected by an event guarantees for instance the immediate activation and deployment of the regional column and the volunteer organizations, the management of health care emergency operations, the deployment of its technical experts to check the safety in buildings, assess the damage, evaluating the risks left and induced, verifying if the water is drinkable and conducting environmental recovery and land reclamation operations as well as use of primary necessity goods stored under regional competence to assistance to the population. The region will, in case there is a need for extraordinary means and powers due to the actual needs in an area affected by disaster and on the basis of requests coming from the local institutions, submit a request for a declaration of the State of Emergency.

Emergency preparedness

The limited numbers of fire-fighters in relation to the size of the country and population create a considerable capability deficiency, though one solution to address this need would be to fully train more volunteers for fire-fighting. Even this approach would only be possible in the parts of Italy where there are enough volunteers, which tend to be in the North. In the southern part of Italy there is a relative dearth of volunteers, and there are too few professionals due to insufficient resources to pay them. This is clearly a weak point in the preparedness and real time response to disasters that should be urgently addressed. One possible solution in the South of Italy could be to employ appropriately trained part time fire-fighters which is a solution chosen in Northern Europe in particular in areas

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where the population is limited. Another question to consider in this context is why emergency response resources of this type are not part of the municipal structure as in other countries.

During the panel interviews stakeholders often mentioned the unsatisfactory situation in respect to contingency planning in the municipalities due to insufficient funding and resources or lack of political commitment was mentioned. In Liguria for instance 50% of the municipalities were estimated to have fully implemented their civil protection role, but municipalities where there are only 250 inhabitants cannot complete an entire civil protection plan. Liguria has operational plans for the provinces that can compensate for this and be put in place, if the municipality planning is lacking. In Sicily, however, where there are 390 municipalities and as many as 90 municipalities per province, each of which is under resourced, provinces cannot cope with this problem.

In Italy, there is a general discussion going on concerning the usefulness of the provinces in particular in regions like Sicily. On the other hand in some regions the provinces play a rather strong role. The Review Team found that the official position is to support the provinces. The main task for the provinces is to elaborate the provincial emergency plan, but a problem is that they have no specified powers. The mayors are the local civil protection authorities, but the President of the Province is not by law a civil protection authority. In some regions, the prefects are also involved and playing important roles in civil protection which means that there are multiple actors with certain authority making the situation sometimes quite unclear.

Some municipalities for instance in Sicily have established inter-municipal collaboration for civil protection planning and work together at a sub-provincial level, frequently around a stronger municipality with more capacity and resources or around for instance the volcano Etna. The logic is to start with a common risk mapping, and the approach adopted is always the same, to assess and map the hazards and risks, create relevant scenarios and elaborate an operational plan. Most major risks are very well known in Sicily, for instance all the area around Etna can be subject to the consequences of an eruption of the volcano, earthquakes and the effects of the ash plume. There are also geographical areas where floods, forest fires, etc. call for well established collaboration between municipalities. In areas with a high and very high level of risks, a civil protection organisation and emergency plan is required in the legislation to be set up and this obligation is being fulfilled in Sicily for volcanic risks and marine and coastal risks including wave intrusion.

To overcome some of the problems in Sicily, the need for inter-municipal plans and collaboration is being emphasized and this year the region has provided funding for inter municipal cooperation, for example for forest fire fighting covering 30% of the Sicilian territory. The region has implemented this model for cooperation also for public administration of health services and waste management without an obligation in the legislation. The development of organized cooperation and the inter municipality cooperation model is therefore encouraged and supported in Sicily. An agreement is signed by the participating municipalities establishing the collaboration with all components collaborating within the municipal cooperation.

The Review Team found it difficult to obtain clear answers to questions about how the application of the above cited national guidelines by the regions is monitored. There is also a need to analyse the extent to which the constitutional and administrative reforms have increased or decreased the capacity for conducting civil protection activities at every level of public administration.

Opportunities for Action: The shortcomings in respect to preparedness and real time response should be addressed and different solutions should be considered from region to region depending on their particular resource deficiencies, to permit NCPS to function in a holistic way in the event of disaster. The interest of interoperability and achieving a more even level of civil protection capacity in the country requires an overall solution that cannot be resolved only within the framework of NCPS.

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Human resource aspects

The Review Team has found a clear, coherent national leadership with other relevant actors integrated into the Italian National Civil Protection Service and a very high level of commitment and professionalism of the personnel at the national and regional level in particular. At provincial and municipal level the visits and interviews demonstrated that there are discrepancies amongst their respective capacities for civil protection activities and a need to establish a minimum acceptable level in all parts of Italy. This will require a more systematic and common education and training system for all civil protection actors in Italy.

A very large number of motivated volunteers provide the necessary resources needed for large scale civil protection operations and help to create local involvement in many, but not all, parts of Italy. About 50% of the personnel involved in an operational response to a disaster will be volunteers, including some volunteer fire fighter brigades, 15% military units (previously conscripts, but now professionals- which means the available persons have been reduced dramatically), 25% professional fire fighters and 10% others (technical), i.e. police, medical care, etc. Only volunteers who have been specifically trained and have adequate equipment can be involved in forest fires and other firefighting. Other volunteers have tasks such as taking care of children and elderly.

The costs for volunteers training and maintaining the organisation are covered, that is if the organisation is registered in a national registry. The volunteers can also be used in international interventions. Training of volunteers, generally carried out locally, is important to avoid the volunteers becoming an obstruction to the professionals. Firstly, they have to learn what they cannot do and to understand the risks in earthquakes, forest fires and floods, before they can learn what they can do, outside a red zone into which no one is allowed to enter except experts and fire brigade personnel.

However, recruitment of volunteers is difficult in certain parts of Italy, due to tradition and other reasons, but the opportunity of getting a good education and training could help to improve the situation. Furthermore, as volunteers cannot fill some more qualified roles without education and training, for instance that of qualified firemen, and should not be required to do so from a workers health and safety perspective, such education and training has to be conducted. Different solutions for improving the situation in the areas with problems of volunteer recruitment need to be found and, besides education and training, certain guidance could be gained from sharing the experiences from the areas in Italy, which have been successful in their recruitment, and also other countries.

Opportunities for action : NCPS seems to a great extent to be very personality driven at all levels and measures need to be taken to maintain the present high level of personal competence and capacity among the personnel - including persons in leadership positions - in the long term perspective. A very high level of competence is necessary for the personnel to be able to fulfil their roles under pressure in the very complex situations which characterize a disaster. Besides the training conducted at different levels of the command and control system and the regular disaster management exercises, a common competence development or life long learning system should be considered for the personnel in the operational components and structures of NCPS.

Such a system could also serve as an engine for improvement of NCPS and therefore include measures for addressing some of the shortcomings that the interviews have indicated primarily on the provincial and municipality levels. The training of the mayors for instance consists of only a one day workshop. For the officers in charge of civil protection at municipal level there are opportunities offered to participate in several training courses.

The regional plan foresees that in case of warning there should be a 24 hour operational room at local level, but the municipalities frequently do not have the resources to manage such a system. If this

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is the situation, then the mayor being responsible for the municipality will be acting very much on his own. But also personnel other than the mayors in the whole system need to have good designated education and training to be able to collaborate well and efficiently with each other at the different posts and levels they may be appointed to in the NCPS. A common competence development programme would also facilitate good recruitment to the service. The training of volunteers should be a part of the common civil protection training.

Opportunities for action: Maintaining the high level of commitment and professionalism of the civil protection personnel is vital and should be promoted through the introduction of a common competence development or life long learning system and measures should be taken to facilitate the recruitment of volunteers in all parts of Italy including education and training.

Technology standard

The visits demonstrated that modern advanced technical equipment is available and used in certain parts of NCPS, for instance systems for sharing the common situation awareness and exercising efficient command and control. The visits and hearings indicated however that in the prefectures, provinces and municipalities on the other hand only some of these had centres with a modern technological standard whereas others were operating with very traditional means such as fax, telephone or cellphone.

Also in other countries old methodologies and technology are still in service to a great extent. In the emergency services in general, there is quite strong traditionalism and a certain tendency to maintaining traditional methodology and technique too long, although the situation is changing quickly with the new generation of personnel.

In Italy modern IT is now becoming successively implemented and operational in certain centres, as elsewhere in the Italian society. Seen in relation to the high level of risk as well as the magnitude of the consequences that have to be managed with a diversified and large quantity of resources, the full introduction of modern methodology and technology on a wider scale can be considered more important and require higher priority than in many other European countries.

Opportunities for action: Efforts should be made to bring all civil protection operational centres in the prefectures, provinces and municipalities fully operational and up to an appropriate and as far as possible common modern technology standard which would facilitate interoperability and enable the centres to contribute more to NCPS. An improvement of the technology in the centres would enhance the capacity for exercising the emergency command and control efficiently but also make it possible to share and contribute to the common national situation awareness system.

Critical infrastructure

Major critical infrastructure providers or life-lines are among the components and structures involved in NCPS and are represented in the Operational Committee (see Annex 2 for more descriptive detail f the operators and their roles in civil protection). These components and structures in NCPS must be obliged to ensure the implementation of their specific competences and capacities in the intervention activities with respect to the established procedures. In the past, Italy has experienced a number of very severe electricity failures, transport disruptions, major production loss and telecommunications failures, which during the study visits and hearings indicated the need to consider the introduction of more extensively legislative and other measures to ensure the functioning of the critical infrastructure in disaster situations or other crises.

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Disruption of critical infrastructure increasingly subjects industrialized economies to negative cascade effects due to the interdependencies of different systems. This also applies to such systems as financial and payment systems including credit cards and cellphone communication systems. It should furthermore be taken into account that extensive privatisation of these services creates new risks and needs for ensuring the functioning of the critical infrastructures through legislation.

There is a clear need to take further steps to ensure the functioning of the critical infrastructure in Italy in the event of natural disasters or other national crises. In Japan for instance, legislation places the responsibility for the functioning of the infrastructure through requirements on the infrastructure providers, public and private, by requiring them to have business continuity planning. Such an approach is recommended also for Italy, not least as these providers or lifelines are the only entities able achieve appropriate and adequate practical results in these respects. There is also a strong self-interest for the infrastructure providers to make their functioning more secure.

Opportunities for action: Consideration should be given to the introduction of a legal responsibility to have effective business continuity planning for critical infrastructure providers, and lifelines in both the business sector and the public sector should be considered to ensure the functioning of society in the event of natural disasters or other national crises.

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6. POST EVENT ISSUES, EMERGENCY OVERCOMING  70

 Chapter 6 - Post Event Issues, Emergency Overcoming

 General context

The frequency and high magnitude of damages from natural disasters in Italy create specific challenges for recovery and reconstruction in addition to the loss of human life, damages to buildings, equipment and inventory resulting from the initial event itself. Considerable indirect costs may arise, mainly through two channels: the disruption of supply in goods and services, particularly in vital systems such as health and energy; and negative reactions from the public. Special efforts must therefore be made in support of rapid reconstruction and to help economic activity resume. At the same time a disaster is a window of opportunity to foster public dialogue on the adoption of policies that can reinforce the prevention of damages from future events.

Reconstruction and compensation for disaster damages

The general approach to support a „return to normalcy is to provide comfortable accommodation in the post emergency phase, allocate a minimum level of government support for housing and the resumption of productive activities, and to ensure that public order is maintained.

An important share of the States annual budget is devoted to restoring damages incurred as a result of natural disasters. From 1999-2008, the State spent over EUR 35 billion in ad hoc, ex post disaster compensation. Although no dedicated disaster fund has been established, yearly expenses are progressively growing. The compensation of disaster losses is handled on a case-by-case basis, whereby the Italian government intervenes in emergencies by providing ex post financial aid and enacting ad hoc laws (so called emergency legislation). Following a disaster the local government of the affected area (town, province or entire region according to the extent of the disaster) may petition for a „Declaration of State of Emergency. If the central government Cabinet approves the proposal, it opens the way to an order specifying the financial amounts to be made available to the public for long term reconstruction. These funds are primarily directed toward paying for reconstruction of public infrastructure and to contribute to the rebuilding of private houses. The area identified in the declaration may make claims for compensation from the fund for recovery measures through the region where it is located, and the President of the region delegates a body to monitor reconstruction works. The Department of Civil Protection acts as an intermediary in this process.

Aggregate damages from disasters in Italy can be very high; over the last forty years, estimates of average annual costs for seismic events adjusted for inflation are EUR 3.0 billion. Owners of private houses may be eligible to receive compensation for repairs and retrofitting or to build a new home, for which they generally have to justify expense claims in detail. They are required, moreover, to move back into their homes within a certain time delay. Since building repairs in seismic zones as a rule include retrofitting, the level of compensation individuals receive will in most cases not cover 100% of

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the damage costs. Residents are never fully satisfied with the compensation they receive, as they have often lost their house, property, history and business or livelihood, but a minimum amount is provided at the beginning of the post emergency stage so that they can try to start over.

There are considerable practical problems opposing recovery efforts and reconstruction in areas that have been damaged by disaster, although they are part and parcel of the same objective, i.e. a return to normalcy. For the local economy to recover it is imperative that utilities be re-established as quickly as it is possible to safely do so, and it is important for local businesses to have access to short term assistance to overcome unexpected expenses resulting from the disaster. At the same time essential repair work may be obstructed by the citys residents who are trying to resume normal activities, and by media who are present to cover the event. While temporary evacuations alleviate these difficult working conditions, and allow exclusive access to the disaster zone to emergency services, residents complain if they are kept from their homes for an extended time since they wish to retrieve belongings, protect their property from looting, make repairs to damage and resume their lives as soon as possible. The National Civil Protection Service addresses some of these concerns by reinforcing the local police presence with the national Carabinieri to protect property against looters. There is also reimbursement made available for living expenses in alternative housing or special accommodation in a hotel or prefabricated houses that are generally located so as not to obstruct the reestablishment of essential services.

Opportunities for action: State funding to compensate for losses arising from disasters are granted on an ad hoc provisions and highly discretional basis. Expenses have often been granted without there being any conditionality for implementing prevention measures to avoid or limit similar disasters in future. For consistency across different types of disasters, the government Cabinet should make its decision with reference to an agreed set of criteria.

Insurance coverage for natural disasters

In Italy, insurance coverage of risks related to natural catastrophes is limited to private insurance stipulated on a voluntary basis. At present, this kind of insurance coverage is fairly infrequent and it mostly concerns the industrial sector, covering devices, machineries, installations and ancillary services.

By enacting special laws and provisions indemnifying the owners of properties affected by single disasters, the government has built up the publics reliance on its generosity and undermined the willingness of individuals to purchase insurance. There can be no robust insurance market for disaster damages under the current conditions whereby the Italian government responds to a public expectation that it provide compensation for losses and rebuilding costs. In light of Italys high public debt and high financial deficit, budgetary reductions are anticipated in the coming years that could make disaster assistance an obvious target for cuts.

To address this situation and to reduce government expenses, several proposals to develop a more efficient model have been presented and debated. Some stakeholders have argued that governmental expenditures could be significantly reduced should a national insurance mechanism be instituted to cover losses from natural disasters, on the basis of a partnership between the public and private sectors.

The Italian Parliament has discussed, but failed to pass, legislation to improve insurance cover for major risks. The government has looked into how it might improve the availability of insurance for disaster damages through a scheme for mandatory multi-risk insurance up to a certain amount, beyond which the government would act as reinsurer of last resort. These discussions included the possibility of creating a fund for seismic risks, which was unpopular with residents of low risk areas who would

6. POST EVENT ISSUES, EMERGENCY OVERCOMING  72

have been required to contribute to the fund. A main challenge then is to achieve a system of insurance that enjoys sufficient reserves to indemnify subscribers for disastrous levels of damage, but is financed by risk based premiums. At present there is no compulsory insurance against catastrophic risks. Several proposals have been made during the past years, but none has made it through the legislative process yet, partly due to competition law restrictions and to the opposition of consumer associations.

Risk based insurance cover is one of the main methods to create incentives for property owners to take measures to mitigate risks and even prevent sub-standard construction and building. In the Abruzzo region, the availability of affordable earthquake insurance is very limited, although there were indications during the mission that penetration of earthquake insurance in Italy is greater for commercial and industrial risks than for residential property. Even where earthquake cover is offered, the amount of coverage provided under policies is limited. Full value earthquake insurance policies are extremely rare, if offered at all, and most policies typically have limits between 20% and 50% of sums insured. Limits tend to be towards the lower level of this percentage in the more seismically active parts of the country and deductibles also apply.

Opportunities for action: To foster the development of a voluntary insurance market for natural disasters and provide an incentive to purchase insurance, which is one of the main mechanisms through which people are usually compelled to invest in damage reduction measures, the legislative efforts should be re-launched to introduce the concept of a public-private system involving insurance companies in the coverage of natural disaster losses.

Evaluation and Lessons Learned

The information provided indicates that the National Civil Protection Service has, by continually learning lessons and gathering experience, developed and increased its capacity and capability with the support of legislation and ordinances which have been introduced over time for this purpose. In the interviews, it was clarified that there was no formalized system or structure for evaluating systematically the individual events and drawing lessons from these that could feed into specific proposals to change policy. Nor are disaster statistics, nor the lessons that are informally drawn from events, compiled in a dedicated data bank as part of the information and decision support system of the National Civil Protection Service.

Opportunities for action: For the benefit of all actors in the National Civil Protection Service and in support of national research centres, DPC should take the initiative, in conjunction with regions, to establish a coherent and formal system or structure for evaluating systematically and independently each Type B and Type C emergency event, and where merited, formulating proposals to change policy in light with lessons learned.

6. POST EVENT ISSUES, EMERGENCY OVERCOMING  73

7. GENERAL ISSUES  74

Chapter 7 - General Issues

The Review Team has found that some reinforcements of the National Civil Protection Service (NCPS) and enlargements or widening of responsibilities, for instance in respect to prevention, or transfer of resources should be considered and that this should be given very high priority. The operational implementation of civil protection policies that directly concern the regions, provinces and municipalities as well as central government bodies of the public administration, the resources need to be reallocated to local authorities and between different parts of Italy to achieve a more even level of risk throughout the national territory.

Bolstering capacities where needed in the current system would improve conditions for NCPS to function even better as a holistic system for disaster management. The Department of Civil Protection cannot meet individually with 8 104 municipalities to identify where there are weaknesses in the system overall, however it does meet with regional civil protection authorities annually. Likewise regional civil protection authorities meet with their provincial counterparts, and the provincial authorities meet with their counterparts at municipal level. This process of information exchange and consultation permits a broad knowledge of where capacities are weakest. To ensure satisfactory implementation of civil protection policies from the central to the local levels of government, and the fulfilment of related intentions and legal requirements, a system of inspection and control should be introduced. This system could be supplemented by evaluations and cost benefit analyses to achieve the best possible use of the available public resources for the different components and structures of NCPS.

The annual budget for DPC is 1.6 billion EUR, of which 1.4 billion EUR are funds for costs related to disasters in previous years. The total bank loans for such costs amount to 1.2 billion EUR. The compensation paid each year for recovery measures through the regions amounts to about 150 million EUR. The costs for reconstruction after the Saint Giuliano Earthquake, for example, were 85 million EUR. Approximately, 200-250 million EUR are allocated each year to cover the DPCs internal expenses, including100 – 130 million EUR that are needed to cover the costs of the air fleet, 60 million EUR for technical and scientific competence centres and 40 million EUR for the operating costs (personnel, equipment, etc.). Up until 2003, DPC had 77 million EU given on an annual basis to use in the event of emergencies, but now funding for this purpose is provided on request.

The visits and interviews revealed that the Italian government anticipates very significant budget reductions due to its public debt, which could have very negative effects on NCPS should these reductions actually take place. At the same time the Review has indicated that there is an evident need to continue the very positive and successful development of the NCPS seen in relation to the very high prevailing risk for natural disasters that threatens Italy.

7. GENERAL ISSUES  75

However, there are also possibilities to rationalize and reduce duplication of efforts, for instance through the implementation of more cost/benefit assessments which could offer opportunities for continued improvements. There are also some indications, for instance in the recent Abruzzo Earthquake, that the anticipated level of ambition has not been reached in respect to earlier reconstruction and retrofitting. Therefore the Review Team suggests that enhanced efforts be made to evaluate and analyze how efficiently the available public resources are used to improve safety and security of the population at risk.

Opportunities for action: Given the high public debt in Italy and especially in light of the anticipated and impending very significant government budget reduction and as there are urgent needs for improvement, as indicated earlier, the Operational Committee where the different components and structures of NCPS are represented seems to be a very appropriate platform to use for coordinated efforts to achieve the best possible use of the national resources that can be made available for civil protection purposes by the different actors and thus offer opportunities for:

- conducting common cost efficiency assessments, analyzing parallel organizational or overlapping areas of competence where duplication of efforts can be avoided and rationalizing spending. Emergency preparedness should on the basis of the very high level of risk in Italy be one of the aspects to be taken into consideration in all reforms of public administration;

- considering alternatives to financing disasters by public bonds;

- providing necessary resources for the continued improvement of the Civil Protection System, for instance the establishment of CFSEs in all regions and the development of the prevention policies, including retrofitting of existing constructions and buildings to reduce the number of those which are not in conformity with the requirements in the seismic codes;

- considering how resources can be reallocated between public administrations to improve the protection of the population and national assets in Italy, including a more even level of safety.

8. SYNTHESIS OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  76

Chapter 8 - Synthesis of Conclusions and Recommendations

The Review Team has found the basis of its review mission and analysis of material provided by the different components and operational structures of the National Civil Protection Service that the Italian civil protection system benefits from a unique and coherent approach to crisis management that can be scaled up to the national level, and that it exercises efficient central government coordination of emergency responses in the event of disaster under a very dynamic and efficient leadership executed by the Department of Civil Protection (DPC). The Review Team draws the following general conclusions:

· The policies of the Italian system of civil protection are well adapted to the countrys recent constitutional reforms, i.e. decentralisation and distribution of public administration competences resulting in the attribution local bodies of those civil protection duties that were not specifically assigned to the central government (such as the management of significant hazards).

· A unique coherent national crisis management organisation with efficient central government leadership and access to all national resources is needed for dealing with crisis and to ensure a unified direction and coordination of all emergency activities. This is achieved by defining intervention strategies and guaranteeing a coordinated deployment of national resources in accordance with a single organisational and operational model, the Augustus planning method, which is implemented both at the national and several local levels.

· A multi-risk approach to large scale disaster management covering the whole range of severe risks and possible crises situations in Italy has been established with fully integrated scientific research and technological expertise in a structured system for maintaining an excellent early warning capacity covering the emergency management cycles phases, i.e. forecasting, conducting surveillance and monitoring, risk prevention, emergency response and overcoming or recovery; strong encouragement and support by DPC is furthermore exercised in the involvement of the institutes and research centres in research and development projects at national and European level

· The Italian National Civil Protection Service has an efficient system for scaling up and adapting the command and control capacity for guaranteeing a coordinated deployment of National resources in accordance with the needs in each disaster situation at hand for interventions in Italy, but also for important and significant contributions by participating in such actions within the European Union and in international humanitarian assistance actions in third countries suffering from severe disasters.

8. SYNTHESIS OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  77

The Italian National Civil Protection Service has a unique, coherent multi-risk approach with fully integrated scientific research and technological expertise in a structured system for forecasting and early warning and efficient central government leadership in large scale disasters and national crisis management with access to all national resources needed for interventions in Italy, but also for providing significant contributions to other countries suffering from natural disasters.

DPCs position directly under the Italian government and the Prime Minister, being a part of the Council of Ministers and having fully integrated scientific research and technological expertise in its organisation, gives NCPS the very best conditions and capability for the crisis management needed to face the quite frequent disasters in the Italian national territory. As in Japan, where the level of risk for natural disasters is extremely high, and in the United Kingdom, the overall coordination and responsibility for society remaining safe and secure is a task of a division within a body similar to the Cabinet Offices. The more general differences between the three countries seem to be that the role of DPC is more operational whereas the Cabinet Office of Japan has a coordinating role and is also involved in emergency prevention policies, while the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom (UK) plays a central role in planning for emergencies and works with other government departments to ensure that the country is prepared to deal with unexpected events.

In most European countries, the Ministries of the Interior or Justice have the responsibility for emergency management. In the Russian Federation, which is exposed to a considerable number of natural disasters within its vast national territory, a specialized Ministry of Civil Defence, Emergencies and Disaster Relief has been established with significant resources at its disposal and for its missions under different conditions including arctic and sub-tropical climate conditions.

There are clear tendencies in different countries of a development following the Italian line towards more focus on the central government involvement and enhanced coordination between safety and security government administrations even at a common location.

In a number of areas which are of significant importance for the making the NCPS actions function even more appropriately and efficiently, the Review Team found that there is a need for further consideration of possible improvements. Even though some of these areas could be considered to fall formally outside the DPC competence, these matters are of fundamental importance for the total result.

Most important are the general needs for achieving a more equal capacity in all the different parts of Italy. Municipalities in large parts of Italy have quite a low or even very low level of capacity for emergency management. This is frequently the case in regions with very high risks for natural disasters which causes major concern. Even though the constitutional reforms transferred operational responsibility to the local level, there was not a transfer of the emergency response functions and resources to the municipalities.

The Review Team found that one reason for the imbalance of capacity amongst different regions of Italy could be that the most qualified response resources in public administration are still part of the central government. These resources are not directly accessible to the responsible mayors. The access to voluntary civil protection resources differs considerably and in particular in the south of Italy where it has been difficult to recruit volunteers.

8. SYNTHESIS OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  78

In Italy many municipalities have a low or very low level of capacity for emergency management, frequently this is the case in regions with very high risks for natural disasters, which causes major concern and requires action for achieving a more equal capacity between different parts of Italy. One reason for the considerable unbalance could be that qualified emergency response resources in the public administration were not transferred together with the operational responsibility to the municipalities in the constitutional reforms and not directly accessible for the responsible mayors.

The consequences of failing to abide by seismic codes for buildings and constructions have come to light following several major earthquakes, which supports the need to increase efforts for preventing disaster damages. Italy also has a particular responsibility for protecting and preserving its significant cultural patrimony and environmental resources. The Review Teams visits and interviews clarified that it would be very beneficial for NCPS to be attributed broader competence for prevention policies, with a role that leverages its competence in disaster management. The formal responsibility for implementation should remain in appropriate ministries and agencies, regions, provinces and municipalities.

A report presented to the Congress of the United States showed that hazard mitigation investments to reduce the risk of natural hazards save on average four dollars in future costs for every dollar spent by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA pre-disaster mitigation grants for floods, hurricanes, tornados and earthquakes between 1993 and 2003 are expected to save more than 220 lives and prevent almost 4,700 injuries over approximately 50 years. The benefits of such investments for risk reduction would likely have even greater impact in Italy due to the relatively high costs caused by disastrous events that are often associated with damages to culturally significant buildings.

The Review Team has found that better implementation of prevention policies through DPC, which has relevant capabilities and experiences in prevention, are urgently needed to reduce the exposure and vulnerability of Italys population to natural risks, and this should be reinforced by robust enforcement measures such as inspections, higher incentives to retrofit and harsher penalties for violations such as building on previously burnt land or in areas at risk.

NCPS in its present form has to a great extent been built since the millennium change and continued development of the system is urgently required, for instance through the establishment of fully operational Functional Centres in all regions (for forecasting and surveillance of effects to support the civil protection authority decision making) supplemented by the Competence Centres, which are involved in risk assessment and management.

Experiences from past disasters demonstrate the urgent need to increase prevention efforts through DPC, which has relevant capabilities and experiences in prevention, to reduce the exposure and vulnerability of Italys population and to establish fully operational Functional Centres in all regions

Legislation

The legislation should be streamlined into and substituted by a holistic and coherent legal framework and system, covering the Italian National Civil Protection Service and setting minimum targets for civil protection, to achieve transparency and a comprehensive overview and understanding for all persons involved in the Service and of the general public.

8. SYNTHESIS OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  79

Clarification of roles and responsibilities of the regions and provinces

In order to achieve and continually ensure efficient risk and disaster management there must be no doubt as to the roles and responsibilities of civil protection authorities at every level of public administration, regardless the model chosen in a region to exercise such responsibilities. Thus, it is necessary to have an obligation to make the roles and responsibilities of the region, prefectures and provinces completely clear and well known in each region to ensure efficient risk and disaster management and enable all involved actors to know their responsibilities, irrespective of which model of devolved operational leadership is chosen by the region to implement.

Capability of the municipalities

A stronger leadership role should be established for the provinces or alternatively the development of collaboration agreements between municipalities, in particular when the latter face a common major risk for disaster. They should be encouraged to compensate for differing and in many cases extremely limited capacity and resources at local level for responding to emergencies. Another solution for improving the situation would be a municipal administrative reform to consolidate cooperation between neighbouring municipalities. There is finally an urgent need for considering in depth the question of improving the conditions for the mayor, who has such a key role in the emergency and disaster management, to make it possible for him to execute satisfactorily his responsibility in disaster situations. This matter, which could include consideration of transferring of central government resources to the municipalities, is of a more overall nature and cannot be resolved within the framework of NCPS.

Inspection System

An inspection system, supplemented by the competence to implement sanctions, should be introduced to ensure minimum standards for civil protection contingency planning and adherence to a minimum level of emergency preparedness in provinces and municipalities respectively (as well as prevention measures including reconstruction and retrofitting). This matter involves the competencies of many public authorities and cannot be resolved exclusively within the framework of NCPS.

Support to the municipalities

Measures should be taken to improve the access of municipalities to national emergency response resources at short notice. They may face unforeseen risks that require more specific competencies and response actions than those that volunteers and limited local resources can provide for.

To achieve transparency and a comprehensive overview and understanding, the legislation should be streamlined into a coherent legal framework setting minimum targets for civil protection. The roles and responsibilities of each competent level must be clear whichever model for exercising civil protection responsibility a region chooses. A stronger leadership role could be established for the provinces or through collaboration agreements between municipalities, and the conditions for the mayor to execute satisfactorily his responsibility should be improved. An inspection system, supplemented by the competence to implement sanctions, is needed to ensure that minimum standards for civil protection contingency planning, the level of emergency preparedness in provinces and municipalities and prevention measures, including reconstruction and retrofitting, are adhered to.

8. SYNTHESIS OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  80

Risk assessment and prevention

The role of the Italian National Civil Protection Service in risk assessment and prevention policies should be clarified and widened to include benchmarking as a supplementary voluntary tool to facilitate comparable risk assessment. DPC should, in addition to the present task of influencing regulation and codes, be given the role to act as a “champion” for a safer society and provide opportunities to consider also more forward-looking aspects to detect the signals that constitute an early warning of emerging risks. The task should cover the whole risk management cycle and be given legal support. Account could be taken of the fact that the research and development being conducted in Italy and in the context of the European Union is already more focused on the holistic risk management cycle, which deals more extensively with risk prevention, than the more limited emergency management cycle. Sufficient resources for ensuring that the task can be executed satisfactorily should be allocated to DPC.

DPC should be given the role with legal support to act as a “champion” for a safer society and provide opportunities to consider also more forward-looking aspects cover the whole risk management cycle to detect the signals that constitute an early warning of emerging risks

Land use planning

The obligation to take into account safety conditions through inter alia adequate land use planning as a basis for granting permission to construction and building should be strengthened in the legislation and efficient sanctions introduced to hinder inappropriate use of land. The implementation of these legal provisions should be monitored by the proposed inspection system. As indicated earlier, this matter is to be considered as a matter of a more overall nature and national interest which cannot be resolved only within the framework of NCPS.

Functional Centres

Very high priority should be given to the establishment of fully operational functional centres (CFSEs) in all twenty regions and the two autonomous provinces, taking into account that the level of risk for natural disasters, even though there are differences in the types of risk, is high in more or less all Italian regions. CFSEs are a prerequisite for fulfilling the need to allow the Italian National Civil Protection Service to act with equivalent efficiency in the event of disaster in all parts of the national territory.

Active involvement of DPC in research and development

The active involvement of DPC and the Italian institutes and research centres, in collaboration with each other and within international collaborations, such as programmes of the European Union, should be continued given high priority in the future. Italy can thereby contribute significantly with its knowledge and experience to the general development of civil protection but also gain substantial benefits to the improvement of the national capacity and the further development of the Italian National Civil Protection Service.

Addressing climate change

Climate change aspects should be given much more consideration and visibility within the Italian National Civil Protection Service for instance through a particular action programme which should include and involve the local level as the climate change aspects will most probably have significant

8. SYNTHESIS OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  81

importance in respect to the consequences of for instance more intensive and heavy rainfall and flooding, heat waves and drought, etc. which to a certain degree have already been observed in Italy.

Climate change aspects should be given much more consideration and visibility through a particular action programme and the obligation to take into account safety conditions for construction and building should be strengthened in the legislation and efficient sanctions introduced. Continued active involvement of DPC and the Italian institutes and research centres, in collaboration with each other and within for instance EU Programmes, should be pursued also in the future. Very high priority should be given to the establishment in all 20 regions and 2 Autonomous Provinces of fully operational CFSEs which are a prerequisite for fulfilling the need to act with equivalent efficiency in the event of disaster in all parts of Italy.

Risk communication and information to the public

A programme for providing a more proactive risk communication with the public should be considered, in addition to the existing programmes, including information on different types of risks and dissemination of risk maps to create public risk awareness and knowledge on the adequate action to take in the event of disaster or accident.

112 Emergency call number

Full support should be given to establishing a strategy aimed at achieving the full implementation of the EU 112 Emergency Call Number in accordance with the European Union legal requirements for the benefit of the individuals seeking urgent help in Italy.

Further enhancement of the proactive risk communication with the public should be considered, including information on different types of risks and dissemination of risk maps to create public risk awareness and knowledge on the adequate action to take. Important initiatives have been implemented in order to achieve full implementation of the 112 Emergency call number for the benefit of persons in urgent need of help.

Preparedness and real time response

The shortcomings mainly at local levels in respect to preparedness and real time response should be addressed to achieve a more satisfactory situation in the area of contingency planning. Different solutions are possible and obviously will vary to a certain extent from one region to another, even if NCPS has to function in a holistic way in the event of disaster. The interest of interoperability and achieving a more even level of safety and security in the country requires this matter, which is of a more overall nature and national interest which cannot be resolved only within the framework of NCPS, is taken under consideration urgently.

Human resource aspects

Maintaining the high level of commitment and professionalism of the civil protection personnel is vital and should be promoted through the introduction of a common competence development or life long learning system. Measures should be taken to facilitate the recruitment of volunteers in all parts of Italy including providing them with education and training.

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Technology standard

Efforts should be made to bring all civil protection operational centres in the prefectures, provinces and municipalities fully operational and up to an appropriate and as far as possible common modern technology standard which would facilitate interoperability and enable the centres to contribute more to NCPS. An improvement of the technology in the centres, would enhance the capacity for exercising the emergency command and control efficiently but also make it possible to share and contribute to a common national situation awareness system.

Critical infrastructure

Introduction of the responsibility for effective business continuity planning in both the business sector and the public sector should be considered and the functioning of critical infrastructure in the event of natural disasters or other national crises ensured through legislation.

NCPS has to function in a holistic way in the event of disaster, which requires a common modern technology standard to facilitate interoperability and the introduction of a common competence development or life long learning system to maintain commitment and professionalism of the personnel. Education and training could facilitate the recruitment of volunteers in all parts of Italy. Modern technology will enhance the efficiency for the emergency command and control and contribute to the common situation awareness. Business continuity planning legislation should be considered for the critical infrastructure.

Post event issues, emergency overcoming

Insurance and resource allocation

To foster the development of a voluntary insurance market for natural disasters and provide an incentive to purchase insurance, which is one of the main mechanisms through which people are usually compelled to invest in damage reduction measures, the legislative efforts should be re-launched to introduce the concept of a public-private system involving insurance companies in the coverage of natural disaster losses.

Evaluation and lessons learned

Initiative should be taken by DPC to establish, for the benefit of all actors in the Civil Protection Service and for research purposes, a coherent system or structure for evaluating systematically and independently the individual emergency events or disasters and learning the lessons from these.

The legislative efforts should be re-launched to introduce the concept of a public-private system involving insurance companies in the coverage of natural disaster losses and a coherent system or structure for evaluating systematically and independently the individual emergency events or disasters and learning the lessons from these should be initiated.

Other general issues

Given the high public debt in Italy and especially in light of the anticipated and impending very significant government budget reduction and as there are urgent needs for improvement, as indicated earlier, the Operational Committee where the different components and structures of the Italian

8. SYNTHESIS OF CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  83

National Civil Protection Service are represented seems to be a very appropriate platform to use for coordinated efforts to achieve the best possible use of the national resources that can be made available for civil protection purposes by the different actors and thus offer opportunities for:

- conducting common cost efficiency assessments, analyzing parallel organizational or overlapping areas of competence where duplication of efforts can be avoided and rationalizing spending. Emergency preparedness should on the basis of the very high level of risk in Italy be one of the aspects to be taken into consideration in all reforms of public administration;

- considering alternatives to financing disasters by public bonds;

- providing necessary resources for the continued improvement of the Civil Protection System, for instance the establishment of CFSEs in all regions and the development of the prevention policies, including retrofitting of existing constructions and buildings to reduce the number of those which are not in conformity with the requirements in the seismic codes;

- considering how resources can be reallocated between public administrations to improve the protection of the population and national assets in Italy, including a more even level of safety.

Coordinated efforts should be undertaken to achieve the best possible use of the national resources by identifying parallel organizational or overlapping areas of competence where duplication of efforts can be avoided, rationalizing spending and reallocating resources between public administrations on the basis of cost benefit analyses to provide the necessary resources for the continued improvement of the Italian National Civil Protection System.

ANNEX 1  84

Annex 1 - Italian Civil Protection Legislation - Main Laws and Regulations

Early legislation

Two fundamental pieces of legislation were put into place in the first decades of the 20th century. In 1919 the Public Works Authority was through a law (R.D.L. 2.9.1919 n. 1915) given the responsibility for direction and coordination of the rescue services in the event of earthquakes. All civil, military and local authorities depended on the Public Works Authority. This law framed for the first time rescue service in case of natural disasters, but the scope of application was limited to geological events only. In 1926 a law created a permanent structure for rescue services and extended its mandate beyond earthquakes (R.D.L. 9.12.1926 n. 2389). The focus was largely geological disasters and the task assigned was that of rescuing populations affected by emergencies following disasters. Subsequent legislation led to changes in the structure and role of the Authority over the next fifty years. All civil and military authorities were placed under the command of the prefect of the Province until the Minister or his Under Secretary arrived on site. Once the Minister of Public Works had completed the first phase of rescue operations, a Commissioner could be nominated to direct the rescue services. A permanent structure designated to the task of rescuing of the population was established. Auxiliary and technical personnel of the province and towns as well as the personnel of the rescue teams and committees were coordinated by civil engineers who were responsible for search and rescue in ruins. The obligations related to the emergency health services were the responsibility of the Red Cross and the Director of neighbouring towns. An obligation to maintain and update annually a register or inventory of rescue teams, hospitals, entry points and fuel stations was introduced.

Structure for coordination

In 1970 the Minister of Interior was made responsible for the rescue of and assistance to the population in the event of natural disaster, and for the direction and coordination of all activities undertaken by the administrations of the State, the regions, local communities and institutions (Law 8.12.1970 n. 996). This legislation defines natural catastrophes as events that entail a serious risk and danger to the security of people and property and that due to their nature and extent must be dealt with as emergency situations. The concept of „prevention was also introduced, even if it was limited to emergency planning and not prevention measures to reduce risks. The tasks of civil protection were described in the legislation and the establishment of a „Civil Protection Volunteer Service was recognized. The law created within the Ministry of the Interior an „Inter Ministerial Committee for Civil Protection and a „Technical Inter Ministerial Commission composed of the representatives of the state administrations and the affected local communities. The law empowered the Prime Minister to make declarations of catastrophe or natural disasters and to nominate a Commissioner for direction of the rescue services and coordination of the services, in collaboration with the regional bodies and affected local communities.

The experiences from three big disasters had demonstrated insufficient capacity and need for better services and structure for coordination. Civil protection was defined as a collection of services in preparedness (rescue, assistance and emergency services) and as a coordination service for emergency management in a catastrophe. Natural disasters and catastrophes and the tasks of civil

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protection were described and defined as situations that entail a serious risk and danger to the security of people and property and that due to their nature and extent must be confronted. With this Law it was recognized that the fire brigade may train and equip volunteers and the concept of Prevention was introduced, even if it was limited to emergency plans and not reduction of risks.

The law created within the Ministry of the Interior an Inter Ministerial Committee for Civil Protection and a Technical Inter Ministerial Commission composed of the representatives of the state administrations and the affected local communities. The law empowered the Prime Minister to make declarations of catastrophe or natural disasters and nominate a Commissioner who directs the rescue services, applies the general directives and coordinates the services in collaboration with the regional bodies and affected local communities. A large part of the law was dedicated to National Fire Service and defines its roles and functions and centres for intervention (CAPI) and assistance to affected populations. This service was under the authority of the Director General (DG) of public assistance, later the DG Civil Protection, and the Anti Fire Service of the Ministry of the Interior.

National Civil Protection Service and the principle of subsidiarity

The National Civil Protection Service was established through a law in 1992 (L. 24.2.1992 n. 225). The Prime Minister in cooperation with the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC), which was created within the Prime Ministers Office, was given the responsibility to initiate and coordinate the activities of the central government, the regions, the municipalities, agencies, institutions and other public and private organisations in Italy. The role of the voluntary organisations was recognized and a fund for civil protection is institutionalized. The government (Council of Ministers) was entitled in the law, on a proposal of the Prime Minister, to declare a State of Emergency, which was to be executed by the Prime Minister who was given the authority to nominate Commissioners.

The law codified the Commission on Major Risks which had been organized already and served as a link between the administration of the civil protection and the different domains of the scientific community and furthermore established the National Commission for Prediction and Prevention of Major Risks as well as the Civil Protection Operation Committee and the National Council for Civil Protection.

Besides the emergency services, the law dealt with forecasting and prevention measures which were included in the scope of civil protection. Prevention was not limited to matters related to the rescue of persons in emergency situations and reconstruction or restoration but also included measures to limit the major risks in Italy, i.e. there was a change from a system for post emergency intervention to a system which included assessment based on forecasting and prevention of risks.

The law defined the civil protection as a structure on several levels and with a mixed competence between government, regions, municipalities as well as research communities, voluntary organisations and all other relevant institutions including private entities. The structure was based on the principle of subsidiarity. The interventions made by the public bodies were to be in the form of offering support or aid, when the citizens or subordinate entities were unable to manage the situation. The mayor was given responsibility in each municipality and when the municipal resources were insufficient then the higher levels could be mobilized. The law had the intention of harmonising and improving efficiency but not to centralize powers and competence. If a Commissioner was not nominated then the prefect had the task of coordinating the support to the municipality.

The law thus established a structure for coordination of competences but in a context of decentralisation to the regions, provinces and municipalities, where the mayor was the responsible authority. The regions were required to improve their structure for civil protection intervention and support and to promote the local organisations. The regions were given a role in regional planning and

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providing guidance as well as required to participate and initiate through regional programmes in the organization and civil protection activities. They were above all obliged to act in areas of prediction and prevention in different situations and areas of risk, whereas their competences on the operational level remain limited. The provinces were to participate in the National Service and elaborate provincial programmes for prediction and prevention, which could serve as a basis for the prefects emergency planning measures.

Modification of administrative competences

In the legislation on sharing of competences among National, regional and local levels (L 31.3.1998 n. 112), the administrative competences were modified in 1997. The public services of the government, the regions and the local communities, and their tasks and responsibilities were defined for the implementation of the provision in the constitutional law of the 16 March 1997 (L 15.3.1997 n. 59) in respect to civil protection and other matters. This constitutional law and some supplementary implementation ordinances had introduced federalism and the principle of subsidiarity as the criteria for distributing the administrative competences and resulted in the attribution of all duties to the local bodies, also civil protection matters, which were not assigned specifically to the government or otherwise. In fact civil protection was recognized as a system with mixed competences with different tasks attributed to the regions and local communities with the exception of certain duties i.e. those which fall within the scope of the National Civil Protection Service. The specification of tasks within the competence of the government, the regions and the municipalities respectively was instituted and executed through a Joint Conference and a law of 28 august 1997 (L. 28.8.1997 n. 281).

National Commission for Prediction and Prevention of Major Risks

The Prime Minister issued in 1998 a decree (18.3.1998 n. 429) regulating the organization and functioning of the National Commission for Prediction and Prevention of Major Risks.

Legislation affecting the competences

Changes were made in respect to the responsibilities at local level in 1999 (L. 3.8.1999 n. 265) in respect to the coordination and organisation of the provinces and municipalities. The competence for information to the public on natural emergencies was transformed from the prefects to the mayors.

The EU Directive 96/82/CE of 9 December 1996 on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances was implemented through legislation in 1999 (L. 17.8.1999 n. 334) and introduced certain specific competences and tasks. This Directive is aimed at the prevention of major accidents which involve dangerous substances, and the limitation of their consequences for man and the environment, with a view to ensuring high levels of protection throughout the Community in a consistent and effective manner.

Other legislation in 2000 was the law (L. 10.8.2000 n. 246) on strengthening of the National Firefighter Corp and the Forest Fires National Law (L. 31.11.2000 n. 353), which assigned the full responsibility for forest fire prevention and fire fighting to the regions.

In 2001 (L. Constitutional 18.10.2001 n. 3) modifications were made in the constitutional law which had implications on the power to legislation exercised by the State and the regions in respect to constraints in the constitution due to international law and European Union obligations. These constraints are such as derive from generally recognized norms of international law and EU treaty agreements with obligations limiting sovereignty. A domestic law which is in contradiction to international provisions is thus to be considered as anti constitutional. The reform puts the emphasis

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on and clarifies the precedence of the international commitments following from treaties to the normal domestic legislation.

National Civil Protection Agency

In the context of a modification of administrative competences, a National Civil Protection Agency for technical and operational matters was established through law (L. 30.7.1999 n. 300) under the Ministry of Interior which had the political administrative functions. The Agency had responsibility, besides the technical and operational matters, for the civil protection scientific matters, the fire services and the National Seismic Services. The Fire Service Corps was subordinated the Agency in matters related to civil protection. The Agency was abolished in 2001 (L. 7.9.2001 n. 343).

Changed structure in 2001

Legislation in 2001 changed the structure i.e. the law (L. 7.9.2001 n. 343) on urgent dispositions for the operational coordination of the structures designated for the civil protection activities and the improvement of logistic structures of civil protection as well as the law (L. 9.11.2001 n. 401) with urgent guidelines needed to guarantee the operational coordination of the structures in charge of carrying out civil protection activities and for the improvement of civil defence logistic structures. The latter law transferred the responsibility for the planning of operational guidelines and the forecasting and prevention programs against risks as well as the national rescue programmes and plans needed to carry out required emergency measures to the Prime Minister in agreement with the regions and local communities. The civil protection activities were thus in this legislation changed back and returned to what was established in 1992.

The competence of the State in civil protection matters was lifted again through the law (L. 7.9.2001 n. 343) to the Prime Minister to whom the responsibility for large events and the power to declare a State of Emergency belongs in accordance with administrative rules. The National Civil Protection Agency was abolished and the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) re-established within the Prime Ministers Office. The Prime Minister was entitled to delegate his competence in the area of civil protection to the Minister of Interior. A Committee for government, regions and local communities was established and the National Commission for Prediction and Prevention of Major Risks as well as the Civil Protection Operational Committee and the National Council for Civil Protection were maintained. Consequently, on 2 March and 12 april 2002 the Prime Minister issued decrees establishing the Civil Protection Operational Committee and National Commission for Prediction and Prevention of Major Risks respectively.

The Head of the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) was given responsibility for operational coordination in civil protection matters of all public and private organizations. New in this legislation was that large events were not defined precisely but they were given a generic character related to natural emergencies and disasters to be decided on in each situation by the government, on proposal of the Head of the DPC.

The Prime Minister issued on 20 December 1998 guidelines for the planning, prediction, prevention and response activities in respect to forest fires.

In 2001 the President of the Republic issued a Declaration (194/2001) regulating the participation of volunteer organisations in the civil protection activities.

ANNEX 1        88

Role of the Prime Minister

The legislation in 2002 (L. 4.11.2002 n. 245, converted by L. 27.12.2002 n. 245, and including its modifications in L. 27.12.2002 n. 286) confers full authority to the Prime Minister, upon the break out of an extraordinary emergency situation, evaluated according to the life threatening risk level, and upon a request by the Head of the DPC and after conferring with the President of the region involved even before the actual release of the Declaration of a State of Emergency, to dispose the involvement of the available operational structures of the National Civil Protection Service to face the emergency.

2008 Operational Guidelines for Emergency Management

The Prime Minister issued on 3 December 2008 Operational Guidelines for Emergency Management to regulate the information flow between the different subjects involved, the activation and coordination of the components of the National Civil Protection Service (NCPS), describe the organizational model of the emergency management at a national level to support and adequately contribute to the local civil protection response and guarantee the necessary operational coordination of the emergency management. By forecasting and anticipating as well as evaluating an event or situation and thus the consequent intervention including the local systems ability and the available and by guaranteeing a constant and immediate mutual exchange of information, both at a territorial and central level, it will be possible for the Head of the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) to achieve an immediate and complete knowledge of the event and therefore to be able to evaluate at any moment the emergency situation in progress, that upon becoming an extraordinary emergency would require the Prime Ministers coordination of operations and initiatives.

The “Sala Situazione Italia”(SSI): the National Operational Room

The SSI at the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) has the task to guarantee the reception, collection, processing and testing of news or information concerning calamity events as well as critical situations in Italy and abroad. Another duty of SSI is to spread information with the objective of alerting immediately and activating the different components and structures of the Nation Civil Protection System (NCPS) set up for emergency management, contributing in this way to a prompt activation of the potential needed measures to face the emergency. In case of emergencies requiring extraordinary means and power, SSI becomes an essential structure in support of the Civil Protection Operational Committee and guarantees the implementation of its dispositions through the structures of the NCPS. The SSI operates on a 24 hour basis, all year round, through the participation of the DPC staff and staff from the operational structures of the National Civil Protection Service:

- National Fire Brigades Corps

- Armed Forces (Italian Joint Operations Headquarters of the Defence)

- National Police

- Carabinieri

- Revenue Guard Corps

- National Forest Corps

- Harbour Office of the Coast Guard

ANNEX 1        89

Other components and operational structures can be added to the SSI. The diversity of subjects handled within SSI turns it into a main point of reference and unique coordination center in its genre. Should the emergency situation require the active participation of other institutions and administrations, SSI, which is planned according to a modular structure, is able to respond adequately. It is equipped, besides the ordinary computer technology and telecommunications equipment, with the following:

· a terminal as the interface of its own national operational coordination structure;

· a "com center" system set up for an integrated coordination of radio and phone communications including those operating on different frequencies and different systems.

SSI is also equipped with local inter-com phone lines and with the most updated technology for video conferences, including satellite technology, for communication with the operational centers of the main National Civil Protection Service components and structures.

 Operational procedures

The ability of SSI to perform its tasks and functions is strictly linked to the alert communication released by the civil protection structures and the quality of the information provided. In case of natural or man-made events which require a coordinated action by a number of competent institutions or administrations, the Civil Protection National Operational Rooms, the operational civil protection rooms of the regions and the provinces, the prefectures, the national operational rooms or the central control structures of the service networks and infrastructure institutions and administrations and the other operational and coordination centers in Italy are liable to carry out the following:

- upon receiving notice of the event immediately inform SSI upon verification of the information authenticity;

- inform SSI on the operations already carried out or programmed to take place, by indicating the type, location, time-frame and resources implemented;

- test the available resources at their disposal and inform SSI;

- inform SSI of extra support needed;

- keep in contact with SSI and immediately update SSI on the event;

- upon request by DPC draft reports summarizing the activities carried out.

The institutions and administrations coordinating the data collected by the monitoring networks, not yet transferred or made available to the Functional Centers and in particular to the National Functional Centre, must submit the information regarding the event directly to SSI. Furthermore, each operational civil protection structure and component must provide a constant flow of information, involving from the earliest phases the local institutions by means of the civil protection regional operational rooms.

ANNEX 1          90

 Organisational model for the management of emergencies

Municipality level

The first emergency response, irrespective of the nature, scale and effects of an event must be guaranteed by the local structure, preferably through the activation of a Municipal Operational Center (C.O.C.) for all the different components operating within the local context. During the emergency planning phase, appropriate support to the mayors of small municipalities must be guaranteed by the provincial and regional administrations. The mayor assumes the direction and coordination of the rescue services and assistance to the population hit by a disaster and is in charge of the first necessary operations carried out to face the emergency, by implementing the emergency plan. With the support of the municipal structures personnel and by requesting the assistance of the civil protection structures operating on the territory (fire brigades, police forces, health facilities, water, gas and power supply institutions or companies, waste disposal companies and telephone companies, local volunteer forces) is in charge of the following:

- identification of the best location for the municipal operational center and the waiting and recovery areas, the waiting and the welcoming or hospitalization areas for the population ( if not already specified in the emergency planning phase);

- assessment of the situation and conducting the security or rescue operations, including evacuation of the population;

- health care and assistance to injured persons;

- distribution of meals and identification of temporary accommodation of homeless;

- continuous provision of updated information to the public on the situation and the behaviour code;

- checking of the municipal road system with particular focus on the traffic due to rescue operations and evacuation measures determined by the event;

- establishing a monitoring point to follow the evolution of the event.

Depending on the intensity or scale of the event and capacity of the local system to respond, the operational and coordination centres representing the operational components and structures of the NCPS will be activated across the territory at various levels of responsibility in order to guarantee the coordination of activities needed to manage the emergency.

Provincial level

According to the model adopted by each region, the Rescue Coordination Center (CCS) of the province is activated. In the CCS there are representatives of the region, the prefecture, the province and the institutions, administrations and operational structures dedicated to the management of the emergency and these are responsible for:

- evaluating the needs in the province;

- implementing the available resources in a rational way;

ANNEX 1                 91

- defining the type and quantity of regional and national resources needed to support those already available;

- identifying, if not specified in the emergency planning, the rescue areas.

The CCS must assure unified direction of operations and coordinate actions with those carried out by the mayors of the involved municipalities. If the model adopted by the region does not indicate clearly who exercises leadership of the CCS and there is specific agreement between the prefecture and the province in force, then this tasks is assigned to the prefect who has the duty of ensuring the safety of the people and the goods. However, the main operational functions remain as follows:

- the prefect is responsible for the activation and implementation of the National resources present on the provincial territory regarding public order and security exercising this duty with due respect to the subsidiarity of responsibility to the mayors;

- the President of the Province is responsible for the immediate activation and implementation of the resources, of the road systems and the problems caused to the networks and service infrastructures and, if so provided by the regional jurisdiction, coordinates the contribution given by the volunteer organizations and maintains contact with the municipalities affected by the event.

The organizational model at a provincial level includes a single integrated operational room, which on the one hand carries out the tasks established by CCS and on the other hand collects, assesses and disseminates information related to the event and the civil protection response, through a constant exchange between the different operational centres active within the province, the Regional Operational Room and SSI. When the event requires support to the activities carried out by the municipal operational centres and to link the activities carried out at municipal level with those carried out at the provincial level, inter-municipal Operational Centres are activated (Mixed Operational Centres - C.O.M.), which are located in specifically identified structures, sometimes by merging one or more municipalities. The activation of such Centres is a duty of the authority responsible for the CCS unless a Head Commissioner in charge is nominated following the declaration of the State of Emergency, or the coordination is assigned to the Head of DPC.

Regional level

Each region affected by an event guarantees:

- the immediate activation and deployment of the regional column and the volunteer organizations;

- the management of health care emergency operations, based on the regions own plan, in compliance with the main Criteria and Policies established by the President of the Council of Ministers concerning the management of health relief and rescue operations in emergency crisis;

- the deployment of its technical experts to check the safety in buildings, survey the damage, evaluation of the risks left and induced, the testing to verify if the water is drinkable and environmental recovery and land reclamation operations;

ANNEX 1                          92

- the participation of its official representatives in the activities of the operational and coordination centres established within the region;

- the management of radio networks for the emergency communication and the activation and coordination of the volunteer organizations of radio amateurs;

- the use of primary necessity goods stored under regional competence to assistance to the population.

The region will in case there is a need for extraordinary means and powers due to the actual needs in an area affected by disaster and on the basis of requests coming from the local institutions, submit a request for a declaration of the State of Emergency. If the need to establish in situ a national coordination structure should arise in order to face an emergency (Direction of Command and Control - DI.COMA.C), the region will in agreement with the DPC identify and set up the headquarters needed for this purpose, including consideration of the possibility of utilizing the Regional Operational Room. The Regional Operational Room, which must guarantee in a state of emergency a 24 hour long around the clock operability, provides SSI with a constant update of information related to the activities in progress and communicates the type and quantity of resources needed in support to those already on site as well as maintains the contacts between the operational centres at the provincial and municipal levels.

National level

Prior to or upon the break out of an emergency event requiring the use of extraordinary means and power, the coordination is conferred to the President of the Council of Ministers who before implementing the necessary operations, may benefit from appointed commissioners, once the Council of Ministers has formally declared the State of Emergency. Upon the break out of an exceptional emergency situation, to be evaluated in relation to the serious risk compromising the populations safety, the President of the Council of Ministers, upon the Head of the Department of civil protection„s proposal after hearing the President of the affected region, even prior to the declaration of the State of Emergency may order the involvement of the operational structures of the NCPS, assigning the coordinating role to the Head of the DPC.

DPC becomes the meeting place of the Operational Committee which must ensure a unified direction and coordination of all emergency activities. The Operational Committee led by the Head of the Department, is made up the subjects identified in the D.P.C.M. 21 November 2006 which includes all the public and private institutions and administrations contributing to the management of the emergency. The Committee, on the basis of the events characteristics, needs, and resources available at a National level as well as those already implemented defines a strategy of action. The continuity of the information flow is ensured by SSI which stays in constant contact with the activated operational and coordination centres.

 First priority operations

The activation of the operational coordination structure at the local and National levels necessarily requires a few hours after emergency break out before the structure is functioning fully. It is therefore clear that first aid and assistance to the population activities will be the result of an immediate activation of the civil protection structures ordinarily operative in the affected geographical area in so far their operational capacity has not been reduced by the event. Nevertheless, in order to avoid that the first operations turn out to be inefficient or overlapping it is essential to ensure that from the very initial phases of the emergency each structure operates in tight collaboration with others

ANNEX 1         93

involved through a mutual and integrated effort and use of resources, which can happen only as a result of a strong and unified coordination.

For this purpose, in case of a particularly complex emergency situation and even before the issuing of a Declaration of the State of Emergency by the Council of Ministers, the President of the Council of Ministers, by his own decree, upon the proposal of the Head of the Department of Civil Protection and after consultation with the President of the affected region, may order the deployment of the NCPS operational structures, conferring to the Head of the DPC the role of coordinator of operations and all initiatives to face the emergency in progress. All the information related to the event and the first civil protection response operations must be immediately reported from the earliest phases of the crisis to SSI in order to ensure that the Head of the Department will dispose of the proper instruments and resources needed to face the event. Furthermore, it is necessary that every initiative taken in order to integrate the available resources in the affected area is discussed and approved by the Head of the Department, before convening the civil protection Operational Committee.

The DPC operational response consists in the setting up of a Crisis Unit, which includes the participation of all interested Offices and Services, and the immediate deployment of a Task force for evaluation, support, coordination purposes also with the scope of institutionalizing in situ the National Coordination Centre as a the main Operational Committee reference structure. The Head of DPC is liable to provide a timely and constant information report to the President of the Council of Ministers regarding the development of the emergency in progress through the elaboration of official bulletins describing the situation.

Operational Committee of Civil Protection

In an event which by scale, type and impact on the population and environment affects the communitys ordinary living conditions, the Head of DPC is liable to convene the Operational Committee of Civil Protection which meets at DPC, except in case of other dispositions. The convention of the Operational Committee will, besides its organic structure defined in the D.P.C.M. of 21 November 2006, depend on the type of emergency which determines what further administrations, national and local authorities and companies are called to participate. The Operational Committee in particular has the duty to ensure "a common direction and coordination of emergency activities, through the establishment of interventions on behalf of all administrations and institutions of interest to the relief operations"; that is, based on the development of the scenario and the constant data update provided from the site of the event to SSI, to define the intervention strategies and guarantee a coordinated deployment of national resources.

National Commission for the Forecasting and Prevention of Risks

The Head of DPC issues the request to the President of the National Commission for the Forecasting and Prevention of Risks (Major Risks Commission) to immediately summon the Commission, and adding if necessary the contribution of external technical experts. In the reports exchanged between the Operational Committee and the Commission the definition of risk scenarios and their potential development as well as the scientific data collection regarding the event are guaranteed by the National Functional Centre of DPC. The National Functional Centre is also responsible for evaluating the need to benefit from further opinions, participation or services provided by the Competence Centres.

ANNEX 1          94

 Main activities carried out by the operational components and structures of the civil protection

The representatives of the components and structures of the NCPS within the Operational Committee must ensure the implementation of the established intervention activities with respect to the specific competences and procedures of these components and structures.

In particular the representative of the:

 National Fire Brigades Corps

Immediate actions

a) provide detailed information regarding the consequences of the event for the purpose of making a first estimate of fatalities, the number of injured persons, the population in need of assistance and the accessibility to the area affected by disaster;

b) provide information regarding the human resources, logistics and technology available and ready for immediate use on site, in particular resources for search and rescue activities, including those already deployed;

c) provide information about additional resources available for potential use, identifying their location, characteristics, time frame for action and instructions for use;

d) make available the mobile operational centers of the fire brigades as first coordination headquarters in situ;

e) identify the coordinators of the urgent technical rescue operations on site;

Within 12 hours

a) make the personnel of the fire brigades available for safety control of strategic buildings and the structures hosting the operational and coordination centers of the rescue and relief system supported by local technical experts;

b) guarantee the service of its staff at the operational and coordination centers in disaster areas;

Within 24 hours

a) supply the required operational and logistic support for the urgent accommodation needs of the affected population;

b) provide information concerning the interventions carried out to secure the safety of structures and infrastructures;

ANNEX 1     95

 Armed Forces

Immediate actions

a) provide detailed information regarding the consequences of the event for the purpose of making a first estimate of fatalities, the number of injured persons, the population in need of assistance and the accessibility to the area affected by disaster;

b) following a request by SSI provide information regarding the human resources, logistics and technology available and ready for immediate use on site, in particular resources for search and rescue activities, including those already deployed;

c) provide information about additional resources available for potential use, identifying their location, characteristics, time frame for action and instructions for use;

d) activate available ground, air and naval resources, autonomously or joined with other administrations, institutions or structures, for immediate evacuation purposes and treatment and transfer of injured persons (MEDEVAC) to designated medical facilities and hospitals;

e) dispose NOTAM to regulate flight activities over the areas at risk when these are located within military jurisdiction premises, for the purposes of simplifying and optimizing rescue and relief operations;

Within 12 hours

a) activate following a request by SSI available resources and man power for removal of debris and setting up of base camps for the rescue teams and shelter areas for the population;

b) despatch to the area affected by the event, on request by SSI, necessary mobile structures for flight operations, which must be controlled and conducted in compliance with the established flight restrictive measures in terms of the availability and the distance to and operability in the area of interest;

c) identify and activate the necessary means to carry out as soon as possible on request by SSI an aero-photographic survey, including an infrared survey of the area of interest due to the event, and ensure its repetition in case of need as requested by SSI ;

d) activate the structures aimed at implementing a network of telecommunications, also on a temporary camp basis, equipped with the necessary requirements respecting privacy restrictions;

e) ensure its personnel/staffs presence at the operational and coordination centres on the territory;

f) identify the military logistic structures with particular regard to airports and naval bases, which may be used as gathering areas for the rescue teams and as deposit areas of the equipment and means;

ANNEX 1                      96

Within 24 hours

a) upon request of SSI, despatch available resources to guarantee the urgent assistance to provide accommodation and shelter to the population, except in case of security restrictions (classified specific areas, etc.).

 Police Forces

(The National Police, the Carabinieri, the Revenue Guard Corps and the National Penitentiary Police and the National Forest Corps are represented in the Operational Committee)

Immediate actions

(Through the direct coordination of the Department of Public Security, for general matters, or the prefects for local matters)

a) provide detailed information regarding the consequences of the event for the purpose of making a first estimate of fatalities, the number of injured persons, the population in need of assistance and the accessibility to the area affected by disaster;

b) provide information regarding the human resources, logistics and technology available and ready for immediate use on site, in particular resources for search and rescue activities;

d) propose the possible use of additional resources, by indicating their location, characteristics, , time frame for action and instructions for use;

e) the Police Administration Head of the affected province is responsible of identifying the coordinator of public security and safety actions in the province;

f) adopt public security and safety competence measures;

Within 12 hours

a) guarantee in collaboration with the health authorities the activation of the necessary scientific technical competences and experts for the procedures needed to identify bodies and ensure the presence of specialized staff at the operational and coordination centres activated in the affected area;

b) ensure the presence of staff from the Police Forces at the operational and coordination centres active in the affected area.

Within 24 hours

a) guarantee safety in the base camps hosting the rescue teams, the populations shelter areas and the operational and coordination centres activated in the affected area.

ANNEX 1      97

Harbour Offices of the Coast Guard

Immediate actions

a) provide detailed information regarding the consequences of the event for the purpose of making a first estimate of fatalities, the number of injured persons, the population in need of assistance and the accessibility to the area affected by the event;

b) provide information regarding the human resources, logistics and technology available and ready for immediate use on site, in particular resources for search and rescue activities;

c) plan the potential deployment of additional resources, identifying their location, characteristics, , time frame for action and instructions or modalities for use;

d) identify the coordinators of rescue operations at sea;

e) provide information on the operability of harbour and maritime infrastructures in the areas affected by disaster;

f) activate naval resources, also the ones provided on a private basis, supplied autonomously or jointly with other administrations, institutions or structures, for the inflow of relief operators and to guarantee a timely evacuation and treatment and transfer of injured victims (MEDEVAC) to safe areas or hospital facilities which can provide temporary shelter areas for the population;

g) dispose the issuing of AVURNAV in order to provide restrictions of the areas at risk and to facilitate rescue and relief operations;

Within 12 hours

a) plan the necessary activities to survey and evaluate the damage to the bunkering ports and coast and marine industrial plants;

b) identify the harbour infrastructures which can be utilized as gathering areas for the rescue teams and for the means and equipment;

c) ensure the presence of its staff at the operational and coordination centers active in the affected area;

Within 24 hours

a) provide all the information regarding the survey of damage to the marine environment and the necessary measures to guarantee the protection and safety of the marine areas under environmental protection and the equipment and production plants and companies involved in the event.

ANNEX 1             98

 Italian Red Cross

Immediate actions

a) participate in gathering detailed information regarding the consequences of the event for the purpose of drafting a first estimate of the casualties, the number of injured persons and the population in need of assistance;

b) provide information regarding the human resources, logistics and technology available and ready on site;

c) plan the potential deployment of additional resources, identifying their location, characteristics, time for action and modalities for use;

d) ensure participation in rescue and relief operations and providing assistance to the injured population;

Within 12 hours

a) ensure the presence of its personnel at the operational and coordination centers activated in the area;

b) guarantee participation in setting up and coordinating the base camps hosting the resources for relief operations and shelter areas for the population;

c) ensure participation in providing assistance to the population in particular to particularly sensitive groups of the population;

d) activate its permanent structures with the purpose of guaranteeing, within its capacity limits, assistance with the sheltering of the evacuated population hit by the event;

e) propose the potential deployment of expert teams for both special rescue operations and assessing the specific risk situations (health-logistic – psychological support);

f) propose the deployment of special teams responsible of assisting the population in contacting their families;

g) activate the transportation staff of the Red Cross by supplying special means of transport;

Within 24 hours

a) ensure the preparation and distribution of meals for the rescue teams and the population;

b) ensure the deployment of the equipment and staff needed across the affected area for the coordination of water purifiers and distribution of drinkable water.

ANNEX 1          99

 National Volunteers’ Organizations

Immediate actions

a) provide, in collaboration with the region, all the information regarding the number of volunteer organizations that are active in the affected area with their personnel and the professional skills of these persons, equipment and logistics with particular reference to search and rescue related activities, health care assistance and radio-communications in support of the population;

b) plan the potential deployment of additional resources, identifying their location, characteristics, time frame for action and modalities for use;

Within 12 hours

a) ensure the participation of its staff at the operational and coordination centres active in the area;

b) guarantee participation in setting up of base camps for rescue teams and shelter areas for the population;

Within 24 hours

a) ensure the preparation and distribution of meals for the rescue teams and the population;

b) participate upon request by the competent authorities in the rescue of the population and all the necessary activities to reinstate ordinary living conditions.

 National Alpine Rescue and Spelaeology Corps

Immediate actions

a) provide all information regarding the presence of the Corps in the area affected by the event, including the availability of personnel, the professional skills of these persons, equipment and logistics with particular reference to search and rescue activities, health care assistance and support to the population;

b) plan the potential deployment of additional resources, identifying their location, characteristics, time frame for action and modalities for use;

Within 12 hours

a) plan the potential deployment of expert teams for the evaluation of specific risk situations.

ANNEX 1                                   100

 Autonomous Regions and Provinces

Immediate actions

a) provide, in collaboration with the volunteer representative, all information regarding the human, logistic and technological resources with particular reference to the mobile regional columns available in the area affected by the event, defining their location, characteristics, time frame for action and modalities for use;

b) collaborate in the mobilisation and disposition, also through private companies and enterprises, of means, machines and equipment which might be necessary to use;

c) plan the potential deployment of resources in the health department which might be necessary by identifying their location, characteristics, equipment, time frame for action and modalities for use;

Within 12 hours

a) collect information on availability the technical teams, also through agreement with professional bodies, to be used for monitoring the damage suffered, assessment of safety and remaining risks in buildings and of infrastructures and plan for the organization of measures in agreement with the region affected by the event;

b) identify areas, if necessary, outside of the region affected by the disaster where resources are to be stocked and preserved and to ship the resources to such areas;

c) verify through regional and local public shipping and transport companies as well as private companies the availability of large collective means of transportation;

d) offer support within the region affected by the event in identifying with particular attention to residential buildings and hotels for tourists the permanent structures necessary to guarantee the accommodations of the evacuated population or other persons affected by the event;

e) ensure the presence of personnel from the region at the operational and coordination centres active on the affected area;

Within 24 hours

a) identify companies and institutions, outside the region hit by the event, which could provide assistance to the local structures for supplying the following services (waste disposal, management and preservation of bodies and corpses, public hygiene, etc.).

ANNEX 1       101

 Ministry of Work, Health and Social Policies

Immediate actions

a) contribute to the assessment of needs and priorities for action to be taken;

b) provide, in collaboration with the representatives of the Autonomous Regions and Provinces, the information concerning the human health, logistics and technological resources available in the area affected by the event, identifying their location, characteristics and equipment, time frame for action and modalities for use;

Within 12 hours

a) propose the potential deployment of expert teams for the evaluation of specific risks;

Within 24 hours

a) identify potential public health care measures to protect the population;

b) activate reference centres, laboratories and other institutions highly specialized in diagnostics and therapy.

 ENAC [ID/explain abbreviation]

Immediate actions

a) supply all information regarding the operability and capacity of airports, air routes and heliports in the areas affected by the emergency;

b) adopt, also through NOTAM, in order to facilitate rescue operations, necessary regulations limiting ordinary and commercial flight activities in the airports concerned by the event and identifying alternative intermediate stops and rerouting air traffic;

c) provide necessary information to travellers in order to limit their discomfort and difficulties;

Within 12 hours

a) identify and activate civilian airports to be used as “HUBS” nearby the areas concerned by the emergency where the aircraft supplying rescue staff and equipment can be concentrated and where rescue teams can be gathered and stores of means, equipment and goods needed for relief operations can be maintained;

b) propose the necessary agreements with the managing companies of the airports in order to provide an adequate level of assistance to the travellers and identify, in collaboration with the local public transportation companies and private bus companies as well as naval transportation companies, the appropriate alternative transport solutions for the passengers affected by the air transportation temporary limitations;

c) identify the aeronautical companies and available aircraft for covering the transport needs in respect to the staff and material required by NCPS.

ANNEX 1                            102

 ENAV [Italian Company for Air Navigation Services]

Immediate actions

a) supply all information regarding the operability and capacity of the airports in the areas affected by the emergency;

b) plan all measures and regulations necessary to coordinate and control the flow of air traffic, in agreement with the DPC/COAU, including NOTAMs regulation of flight activity in the areas at risk, in order to facilitate the required rescue operations (ENAV/ACU);

c) coordinate the limitation of the air flow within Italian air space or landing at airports located in the area affected by the emergency with EUROCONTROL, when necessary;

Within 12 hours

a) provide information records regarding the operational flights.

 Electrical Power Service Companies GSE [Gestore Servizi Elettrici]

Immediate actions

a) provide information on the power production plants of GSE also operating through power networks other than the national network (indicating the area, production status and contacts);

b) keep contact with the managers of the plants located in the area hit by the disaster and monitor and provide information about the actual situation within the GSE field of competence;

Within 12 hours

a) provide a contact centre for the spreading of useful information to the community with respect to the emergency and contribute with support to the updating of the state of the plants for the purpose of releasing useful additional data to NCPS, in accordance with scheduled service hours and within the structures of GSE.

 Electrical Power Service Companies – Terna

Immediate actions

a) supply the information regarding the consequences of the event such as the availability of production plants and production and provision of electric power;

b) keep contact with the institutions involved in the distribution of electric power in the area affected by the event for the purpose of providing information regarding the power supply in the area;

ANNEX 1      103

c) supply all the information concerning the technical and technological resources of the companies active in the affected area and capable of responding to the emergency and propose the potential deployment of additional resources, identifying their location, characteristics, time frame and modalities for use;

Within 12 hours

a) contribute to secure the provision of electric power in the area affected by the event;

b) contribute to the access to and availability of the means, machines and equipment that may prove necessary, also through the support of contracted companies;

c) coordinate activities for the urgent recovery of the safety of the networks and damaged services;

d) provide the necessary assistance, in terms of human, logistic and technological resources, for the implementation and management of the operational and coordination centers on the affected area.

 ANAS [Azienda Nazionale Autonoma delle Strade Statali -Auto-routes of Italy] and

 AISCAT [Associazione Italiana Società Concessionarie di Autostrade e Trafori ]

Immediate actions

a) supply all information regarding the state of national mobility particularly focusing on the specific complexities determined by the event;

b) supply all information on the damages suffered by the road systems infrastructures, administered directly or by contract, in the area affected by the emergency;

c) propose in respect to the highways the use of alternative road systems and the adoption of extraordinary traffic regulations, particularly aimed at ensuring the operability of NCPS;

d) contribute to locating and implementing, with the support of companies under contract, the available means, machinery and equipment which may prove necessary;

e) provide the logistic structures and infrastructures (heliports, deposit areas for the storage of means and other useful resources to the rescue teams);

f) provide escort and dispatch riders to the transportation of special material and mobile columns of rescue teams;

g) allow the rescue teams easy access to the tollbooths ;

h) supply all useful information to drivers, in collaboration with CCISS and ISORADIO and the highway contractors, also through the implementation of panels displaying messages with updated traffic information;

i) plan necessary measures together with local institutions and volunteer organizations to provide an adequate assistance to drivers;

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Within 12 hours

a) plan the necessary activities to survey and evaluate the damage suffered by the infrastructures also action in terms of potential adoption of restrictive motor vehicle traffic measures;

b) provide an evaluation of the time needed to reinstate the ordinary operability of the infrastructures hit by the disaster.

 State Railway – RFI [Italian Rail Network] and Trenitalia

Immediate actions

a) supply all information concerning the national rail transport system, highlighting the most critical situations;

b) supply all information on the deployment of experts required to verify the state of the infrastructure and, in case of a critical state of mobility, request further assistance to ensure the arrival of the civil protection;

c) adopt the necessary information procedures aimed at minimizing the difficulties encountered by the travelers

d) make available video and sound equipment for the information to the public by the civil protection;

e) contribute with [delete?] available resources in collaboration with local institutions and volunteer organizations and provide appropriate assistance to the railway passengers on board, by re-routing them;

f) evaluate the availability of logistic and rail system means to transport the population and rescue teams and goods following a request by the civil protection indicating type and quantity of transport needs and dislocation;

Within 12 hours

a) provide all information regarding the damage suffered by the railway systems infrastructures in the area hit by emergency;

b) contribute together with the civil protection to identify the best alternative transport solutions for the passengers concerned by the limitation or blockage of the rail system;

Within 24 hours

a) make available, in compliance with the railway systems need to guarantee its service even during a state of emergency, logistics and rail system means required by the civil protection to assist the population or the rescue teams and for transportation needs (also by special trains) of people and goods.

ANNEX 1    105

 Fixed line Telephone and mobile phone Companies - Telecom Italia, Vodafone, Wind, H3G

Immediate actions

a) supply all information regarding the state of fixed line telephone and mobile phone services in the areas hit by emergency and the alternative networks supplied by each operator, highlighting the organizational and infrastructural impact;

b) supply all useful information to the elaboration of risk scenario analyses based on the inter-dependence with other critical infrastructures;

c) identify the corrective measures needed to guarantee the best possible connection continuity of the networks throughout the national territory, in order to avoid a domino effect on other types of infrastructure and to solve traffic congestion problems that are reported in real time at the operators coordination centers;

d) outline the technical and planning measures supporting the operability and resilience of the necessary connections between the areas hit by emergency and the coordination centers spread across the territory and between the centers and the Operational Committee by providing phone, video and all available data;

e) proceed, in compliance with the terms and conditions regulated by the specific conventions set between the DPC and the phone service Providers and Operators:

- to send SMS messages for the emergency management;

- to provide the number (as overall data) specified by nationality (country code), of the international roamers present in the area hit by emergency. International roamers stands for users on national Italian territory using a mobile phone service, roaming on the national Italian telecommunications network.

f) provide support to the activities aimed at guaranteeing, in conformity with the legislation in force, the search of missing persons by means of the technological tools allowed by the assistance and verification systems of the mobile phone network.

Within 12 hours

a) verify the actions carried out and identify potential modifications based on the damage assessment;

b) provide the necessary assistance in terms of human, logistic and technological resources, aimed at the implementation and coordination of the operational and coordination centers on the territory;

c) plan the recovery project for the restoration of fixed line telephony and mobile phone lines infrastructures.

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 RAI [Radiotelevisione Italia]

Immediate actions

a) supply information regarding the state of the national radio and television broadcasting services and in the areas hit by emergency;

b) make its services available for spreading information to the population;

c) activate at the DPC a centre for transmitting live audio and video broadcasts of the three national television networks and RAINEWS24;

d) activate at the DPC a live radio broadcast of the ISORADIO channel/frequency.

 Italian Postal system

Immediate actions

a) supply information regarding the state of efficiency of the mail services and infrastructures in the areas hit by the event;

b) activate the procedures for the setting up of a "contact center" to provide information to the population and particular user groups;

c) keep in contact with the responsible persons in the area affected by the disaster for identifying the type and entity of the damage suffered by the infrastructures, carrying out recovery actions and to solve any other related criticality.

Within 12 hours

a) set up all the internal and external measures aimed at the prompt restoration, under safe conditions, of the damaged infrastructures and plants, with the objective of ensuring the continuity of services;

b) according to their effective availability, make its physical and hi-tech infrastructures, as well as the network of post offices, available for the dissemination of information to and communication with the public;

c) provide mobile phone services for communications addressed to the citizens;

d) provide the use of the integrated logistic infrastructure and transportation system according to the effective availability;

e) provide all necessary assistance, in terms of human, logistic and technological resources, aimed at the setting up and management of operational and coordination centers.

Within 24 hours

a) perform all actions aimed at the restoration of services in the areas hit by disaster, including the possible deployment of additional human and technological resources including hi-tech devices.

ANNEX 1107

 ENI [Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi – Oil and Gas production]

Immediate actions

a) provide information regarding damages suffered by the infrastructures involved in the storage, processing and transportation of the products;

b) keep in contact with the managers of the power plants located in the area hit by the event, with the purpose of assessing the damages and identifying all possible criticalities;

c) provide information regarding the corporate technical and technological resources located in the affected area and available to be employed for facing the emergency, and suggests the possible deployment of additional resources, identifying their original location and characteristics as well as their employment time and procedures;

d) participate in locating and making available commercial product supply systems through the support of public and private enterprises;

Within 12 hours

a) contribute to restore safety in the areas affected by the event;

b) help with finding and making available any necessary means, equipment and tools, when they might be needed, also through contracting firms and companies.

c) coordinate all activities for the immediate restoration of safety in the damaged infrastructures and power plants;

d) provide all assistance, in terms of human, logistic and technological resources, needed to implement and manage the operational and coordination centers in the affected area or to perform emergency logistics.

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Annex 2 - Critical Infrastructures which Form Part of NCPS

 Civil Aviation Authority of Italy (ENAC)

The Civil Aviation Authority of Italy (ENAC) is the national regulator in the technical, economical and operational aviation field and certifies airlines, airports, air navigation service providers (ANSP), manufacturers, maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) organizations, ground handlers, etc. ENAC is engaged in dealing with the diverse regulatory aspects of air transport system and performs monitoring functions related to the enforcement of the adopted rules regulating administrative and economical issues. Its core business is doubtless represented by safety control, in its double meaning of safety and security, according to internationally agreed terms of reference. Safety is understood as the safe planning, construction, maintenance and exploitation of aircraft, as well as the skill assessment of air carriers and in-flight personnel. Security is meant as the land-side safeguard of passengers, on board aircraft, inside and outside the airports, aimed at the prevention of illicit acts. ENAC represents Italy in the major international civil aviation organizations such as ICAO, ECAC, EASA and the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (Eurocontrol) with which ENAC undertakes a continuous dialogue and cooperation. The specific tasks in NCPS in the event of an emergency include the supply of information regarding the operability and capacity of airports, air routes and heliports in the areas affected by the emergency as well as adoption of necessary regulations, in order to facilitate rescue operations, limiting ordinary and commercial flight activities in the airports concerned by the event and identifying alternative intermediate stops and rerouting air traffic.

 ENAV S.p.A.

ENAV S.p.A. is a joint-stock public corporation fully government-owned Company for Air Navigation Services and Italy plays through ENAV an important role in commissioning the aerial navigation satellite system which assists by the satellite network alone the approach and landing phases. As part of the European Geostationary Navigation and Overlay Service (EGNOS) enhancement programme developed by EU and ENAV, A Project, the GIANT Project, funded by the European Commission, has demonstrated the benefits of satellite assistance compared to traditional radio assistance, which may be replaced over time. The Project will improve performance and reduce margins of error with respect to current GPS systems. The precision of satellite signals increases current safety levels and allows for more efficient and dynamic flight path management, thereby cutting back on times, costs and emissions. In addition to its significant logistical support, ENAV made an important contribution by developing the flight procedures used in the aircraft computer and played a role in defining the testing methodology used in the experiment. The choice of Italy and ENAV is the result of the high technical standards demonstrated nationally and internationally in recent years.

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The ENAV tasks in the NCPS include to supply all information regarding the operability and capacity of the airports in the areas affected by the emergency and plan all measures and regulations necessary to coordinate and control the flow of air traffic, in agreement with the DPC/COAU, including regulation of flight activity in the areas at risk, in order to facilitate the required rescue operations (ENAV/ACU). ENAV is also to assist in the coordination of the limitation of the air flow within Italian air space or landing at airports located in the area affected by the emergency with EUROCONTROL, when necessary.

 Electrical Power Service Companies

Electric Market Managing Company – GME

Electricity trading i.e. buying and selling electricity in the EU Member Countries is regulated in accordance with the European Directive 96/92/EC concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and the Italian legislation for implementation of the Directive the so called „Bersani Decree). This liberalized the generation, import/export, purchase/sale of electricity in Italy. Gestore dei Servizi Elettrici - GSE S.p.A., the Electricity Services Operator which is owned by the government plays a key role in promoting, initiating the use and developing renewable energy sources in Italy through its two subsidiaries the Acquirente Unico - AU or the Single Buyer and Gestore del Mercato Elettrico - GME or the Electric Market Managing Company. Autorità per l'energia elettrica e il gas - AEEG or the Gas and Electricity Markets Authority is an independent regulatory authority which is responsible for promoting competition in and the efficiency of the electricity and gas markets. The specific tasks in NCPS in the event of an emergency include to provide information on the power production plants of GSE also operating through power networks other than the national network (indicating the area, production status and contacts as well as to keep contact with the managers of the plants located in the area hit by the disaster and monitor and provide information about the actual situation within the GSE field of competence. Furthermore, GSE has an obligation to provide a contact centre for the spreading of useful information to the community with respect to the emergency and to contribute with support to the updating of the state of the plants.

Terna Spa Group

The Transmissione Elettricità Rete Nazionale – Terna Spa Group's principal activities are the transmission and dispatch of electricity on the high and extra high voltage grid in Italy and Brazil. The grid comprises in total 35,129 km of electricity lines and 302 transforming and switching stations and 3 remote control centers. The Group also provides related services (development of the grid, management of the electricity system and engineering and maintenance of the plants). The tasks in NCPS of Terna are similar to those of GSE.

 A.N.A.S. S.p.A

The motorways or highways in Italy are mostly toll roads. A.N.A.S. S.p.A (ANAS) which is a government owned company operates two motorways which are toll free. The toll roads form one network and 61% of them handled by the "Autostrade per l'Italia S.p.A." company, and its subsidiaries, which are privately owned and supervised by ANAS. The network of highways covers most of Italy: northern and central Italy are well covered, the south and Sicily are scarcely covered, Sardinia is not covered at all. The motorway operators are required to build, operate and maintain their networks at cost and to cover their expenses from the toll they collect.

ANNEX 2                        110

The specific tasks in NCPS in the event of an emergency include to provide information regarding the state of national mobility particularly focusing on the specific complexities determined by the event and supply all information on the damages suffered by the road systems infrastructures, administered directly or by contract, in the area affected by the emergency and propose in respect to the highways the use of alternative road systems and the adoption of extraordinary traffic regulations, particularly aimed at ensuring the operability of NCPS. Other tasks are to provide the logistic structures and infrastructures (heliports, deposit areas for the storage of means and other useful resources to the rescue teams) as well as escort and dispatch riders to the transportation of special material and mobile columns of rescue teams which are allowed easy access to the tollbooths.

Furthermore, a task is to supply all useful information to drivers, in collaboration with CCISS and ISORADIO and the highway contractors, also through the implementation of panels displaying messages with updated traffic information and plan necessary measures together with local institutions and volunteer organizations to provide an adequate assistance to drivers. In addition planning the necessary activities to survey and evaluate the damage suffered by the infrastructures also action in terms of potential adoption of restrictive motor vehicle traffic measures and an evaluation of the time needed to reinstate the ordinary operability of the infrastructures hit by the disaster are to be undertaken.

 State Railway Company - RFI / Trenitalia

The State Railway Company (RFI) owns the infrastructure and Train Italia is a group managing the transports. When grave railway accidents occur, the consequences are enormous as the transport flow is disrupted which affects many persons. Lives can be lost and the economic consequences are often high. Much has however been learned from a number of serious events in the 1970s.

When DPC was organized, this provided an opportunity to develop and exercise new plans and establish adequate training, thereby improving the preparedness for accidents. A protocol agreement for cooperation has reached between RFI and both DPC and the regions. Train Italia and RFI participate in the DPC Operational Committee. The protocol agreement defines the roles in an event, and training is one of the main items in the agreement.

Train Italia and RFI have adopted an information exchange systems (ERASM), started by their own specialists. The needs and complexity of infrastructure required RFI to develop it in house, without going to the market to procure a ready system. ERASM provides the users with a typology of assets (30,000 assets listed under 13 different types), stations, bridges, tunnels, etc. For each asset, ERASM performs a dynamic risk analysis and considers and provides information about the possible impact, threat and needed level of protection.

RFI has operating procedure for management of relevant incidents or train accidents. There are three levels of management, namely the line, regional department and a common network. In accordance with the incident flowchart for emergency management, DPC and the civil protection in the regions are alerted by the Railway Operation Centre on the first notice by the on-site worker. In accordance with the protocol, a pilot project procedure is in place whereby the schedule is sent containing first advice as to the criticality of the event. This is the first news of a possible intervention. DPC does not manage the intervention which is done by the region, prefect, etc.

If there is a fire, the fire department is contacted when the incident cannot be solved by the Train Italia and RFI resources, which is the case with 90% of the problems. The first step is to decide if it is a civil protection event or not. Guidelines for this are being elaborated in cooperation with DPC. A train which has stopped in a tunnel is usually not a C event, but could be after three hours. When there

ANNEX 2                      111

are many people in peril, then this is a civil protection event. Assistance to passengers and personnel can be provided by the civil protection throughout the Italian territory.

The role of Train Italia is to try and get the train moving again. There is an Enterprise Risk Assessment (ERA) and security management system for communication with DPC from whom information about dangerous weather variables to help them determine the risk levels are received. The procedures for train and infrastructure safety can then be put in place. With the anticipated privatization, RFI will coordinate with the new competitors and the licensing process will encompass safety matters. Inspection is carried out by the Agency of Safety under Ministry of Transport.

In respect to for instance a volcano evacuation scenario, the Train Italia and RFI will contribute in any situation and in the emergency planning which touches their structures. When in an event it would be important to evacuate many people, the train circulation situation can be changed to take away people suddenly. Emergency plans are approved by each prefecture.

The tasks in NCPS of Train Italia and RFI is to provide all information regarding the damage suffered by the railway systems infrastructures in the area hit by emergency and contribute together with the civil protection to identify the best alternative transport solutions for the passengers concerned by the limitation or blockage of the rail system. They will make available, in compliance with the railway systems need to guarantee its service even during a state of emergency, logistics and rail system means required by the civil protection to assist the population or the rescue teams and for transportation needs (also by special trains) of people and goods.

 Fixed line Telephone and mobile phone Companies - Telecom Italia, Vodafone, Wind, H3G

Telecom Italia

The Telecom Italia Group is active in fixed-line and mobile telecommunications and has a Business Continuity Plan even if there is no legal obligation to have one, but the plan is in the Groups own interest. There is a new European project on critical infrastructure under consideration that could lead to binding rules. The output might be to require some form of coordination between industry and service providers within the European critical infrastructures. Within the industry, best practices are regularly shared through informal networks.

During a major emergency, Telecom Italia is represented in the Operational Committee. The telecommunication operators have supplied secure communications for the all components of the civil protection system or voluntary organisations taking part in rescue operations. The telecom network can become saturated during an emergency, but there are protocols ensuring a reserve capacity for institutions. The use of the reserve capacity can be managed from a central level where there is access to the service. There is also a dedicated communication system during a crisis affecting the railways.

For public alert of Italians in other countries, there is a MOU with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to send an SMS to subscribers in an affected area (international disaster). The same action was taken in Italy for communicating with the public during the funeral of the Pope. The service is free for Italians and there is not a capacity problem, but getting the message through might take some time.

The specific tasks in NCPS in the event of an emergency are very extensive but include the supply of all information regarding the state of fixed line telephone and mobile phone services in the areas hit by emergency and the alternative networks supplied by each operator, highlighting the organizational and infrastructural impact as well as the identification of the corrective measures needed to guarantee the best possible connection continuity of the networks throughout the national

ANNEX 2                112

territory, in order to avoid a domino effect on other types of infrastructure and to solve traffic congestion problems that are reported in real time at the operators coordination centres.

Vodafone Italy Foundation

“Fondazione Vodafone Italia” stems from the firm resolve of Vodafone Italy to create an independent structure dedicated entirely to service and social solidarity, specializing in positive, disinterested action to benefit the community and its neediest members in particular. Fondazione Vodofone Italia is a corporate foundation for multi-purpose disbursements which means that it pursues its statutory purposes mainly by collaboration and the disbursement of funds to other individuals working within civilian society. It aims to take on a supporting role in this area either by promoting and financing innovative projects or by strengthening existing projects run by non-profit organisations.

Wind

Wind Telecomunicazioni S.p.A. was established in 1997 and is an Italian telecom operator which offers integrated mobile, fixed and Internet services. It is best known for being the third largest mobile phone company which operates in Italy. Wind currently runs a GSM (900/1800/E900), GPRS, EDGE, UMTS (videocall and mobile broadband) and HSDPA network. While the GSM/GPRS network is available almost everywhere, EDGE, UMTS and HSDPA are available in most cities, but are still expanding.

H3G Italy

H3G Italy, part of one of the world's largest 3G operators and with over 2.6 million subscribers in Italy, has chosen Ericsson as a strategic partner for the total management and development of its multi-vendor 3G network in Italy. The contract also contains optimization of assets, management of H3G Italy's advanced 3G-multimedia service environment, including management of the service layer and business support systems.

The agreement will deliver increased efficiency and cost savings of about 250 million euro in a five year period for H3G Italy, supporting the operator's further expansion in the promising area of 3G multimedia and video services in Italy. H3G Italy will now be able to focus even more on providing attractive, new services along with high advertising quality of service to its subscribers.

 RAI

RAI started in 1990 together with Autostrade per l'Italia S.p.A. the radio channel Isoradio with the objective of giving information to persons along all national and district roads (every 30 minutes in English). Since six years public information about the traffic on the highways is being transmitted and also some minutes daily public utilities information related to civil protection. Isoradio has four channels in the main towns Rome, Milan, Turino and Naples. Normally the channel transmits classical music but in the event of an accident the transmission is interrupted for the delivery of information related to the emergency.

The channel Isoradio started after the earthquake in Malaysia in 2002 to provide direction to civil protection volunteers on how to proceed and has in effect become a dedicated channel to civil protection besides giving traffic information. During the funeral of the Pope the normal national channel and a channel in Rome were activated for civil protection purposes. In October 2006 Isoradio participated in the International Exercise MESIMEX in the Campania region. The scenario for the exercise was the eruption of Vesuvius even though this was not a road accident. The peculiarity with this channel is that it does not have a rigid programme schedule but can make interruptions for public

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utility or emergency management information. Every day, time is given to all parties involved in the civil protection system to allow these stakeholders for instance the fire brigade opportunities to inform the public about a dangerous situation, forecasts, etc.

Normally, there are about five million drivers listening as the channel provides traffic information. 70% of the people listening want to know the weather and traffic conditions. Whenever there is a major emergency, people will tune in. RAI does not cover the entire territory, but it is planning to achieve this in cooperation with DPC. With new Korean radio cutting edge digital technology and text messages, it will be possible to use all channels for general information about weather, news and warnings from the civil protection.

The civil protection distributes news and warnings through all media channels such as press, radio and TV. The relation with Isoradio is special and in the event of disaster, it is the voice of the civil protection which is transmitted to the public, giving information to the public affected by the emergency and to those not involved directly but emotionally. In September 2004 the Prime Minister signed an agreement with the telecommunication and mobile companies that foresees the possibility to interrupt any broadcast without notice. This agreement has never been activated, but it is in place. All official information will only come from the Civil Protection System.

The specific tasks of RAI in NCPS in the event of an emergency are to supply information regarding the state of the national radio and television broadcasting services and in the areas hit by emergency and to make its services available for spreading information to the population. In addition the tasks are to activate at the DPC a centre for transmitting live audio and video broadcasts of the three national television networks and RAINEWS24 and a live radio broadcast of the ISORADIO channel/frequency.

 Italian Postal System

Since 2000 the Italian Postal System has undergone large-scale changes. It is no longer a state-owned monopoly, although the government is the majority owner. The service which is managed by Poste Italiane includes mailing letters and parcels, banking and financial services, and managing certain local administrative matters. Poste Italiane has services catering specifically to small business. The tasks in NCPS of the Italian Postal System are to supply information regarding the state of efficiency of the mail services and infrastructures in the areas hit by an emergency or disaster and perform all actions aimed at the restoration of services in the areas hit by disaster, including the possible deployment of additional human and technological resources including hi-tech devices.

 ENI

ENI is a major integrated energy company which operates in the oil and gas, electricity generation and sale, petrochemicals, oilfield services construction and engineering industries. The tasks in NCPS of ENI include to provide information regarding damages suffered by the infrastructures involved in the storage, processing and transportation of the products, keep in contact with the managers of the power plants located in the area hit by the event, with the purpose of assessing the damages and identifying all possible criticalities and provide information regarding the corporate technical and technological resources located in the affected area and available to be employed for facing the emergency, and suggests the possible deployment of additional resources, identifying their original location and characteristics as well as their employment time and procedures. Among the other tasks are to contribute to restore safety in the areas affected by the event and coordinate all activities for the immediate restoration of safety in the damaged infrastructures and power plants.

ANNEX 3                114

Annex 3 - OECD Review of Italian National Civil Protection Service (NCPS)

Self-assessment Questionnaire

A. General Questionnaire

Respondents may answer with reference to any risk within the remit of NCPS for which they are responsible but focus should be given to natural disasters: earthquakes, volcanoes, floods and forest fires.

A.1. Risk assessment

A.1.a. Roles and responsibilities in risk and vulnerability assessment related to civil protection

· Please briefly describe the role and responsibilities of your organisation with regard to the assessment of the following points:

o earthquake, volcano, flood, forest fire, other risks

o vulnerability of physical structures

o vulnerability of population groups

o secondary effects of these hazards and ensuing risks and vulnerabilities

o integrating the results of the identified risks and vulnerabilities in a central cost and damage assessment

o other

· Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and the resources it devotes in order to fulfil its role in risk/ vulnerability assessment related to civil protection.

· Which other actors cooperate with your organisation in assessing these risks and vulnerabilities at the State level? At prefecture level? At regional/ provincial/municipal level? Private and non-government actors? Please describe the coordination and communication channels.

· Is your agency legally obliged to monitor the points identified above in A.1.a (risk of earthquake, volcano, flood, forest fire)? If so, which?

A.1.b. Risk assessment methods

· Please briefly describe existing programmes aimed at:

o Identifying, monitoring and evaluating the risk of earthquake, volcano, flood, forest fire

o Detecting vulnerabilities in physical structures

ANNEX 3                   115

o Detecting and monitoring new and existing vulnerable groups in the population

o Identifying secondary effects of these risks, including business interruption costs

o Integrating different types of risk and vulnerability data

· How is data collected for the above points? (From where, how often, etc.)

· Are there any obstacles to the collection of data (resources, confidentiality issues, privately-owned information; etc.)? If so, please elaborate your answer.

· Please describe ongoing or planned research programmes regarding risk and vulnerability assessment tools for the risks listed above in A.1.a.

A.1.c. Self-assessment

· How do you view the Italian populations exposure to earthquake, volcano, flood, and forest fire taking into consideration:

o The different measures implemented after major disasters (e.g. Irpinia earthquake, Piemonte floods, Stromboli tsunami, Seveso accident)

o Societal developments in the last 10 years (ageing populations, changes in population income, etc.)

o Technological developments of the last 10 years (increasing interdependence of critical infrastructures, societys dependence on telecommunications)

· In which area(s) do you feel that more information would be needed regarding the various risks listed above, and the vulnerability of structures and population groups?

A.2. Principles of strategic decision-making

A.2.a. Roles and responsibilities in decision-making

· Please describe your role and responsibilities in designing and implementing national strategies for earthquake, volcano, flood, forest fire risk and vulnerability reduction [of physical structures and population groups (elderly, concentrated urban populations, etc.)]?

· What are the coordination and communication channels between the entities?

A.2.b. The national decision-making process

· How are priorities defined and targets set at the national level?

· What are the programmes and implementation plans related to these targets?

· What are the overall public resources devoted to risk and vulnerability reduction? How is this apportioned according to the various types of hazard?

· Which stakeholders are consulted during the decision-making process, and how?

· At what stage, if any, are the costs, benefits and risks of alternative solutions considered?

· How are financial resources allocated to the measures in support of risk and vulnerability assessment? Please make a distinction between the various levels of government (State, regions, prefecture, provinces and municipality) and between sources of funding (State or local taxes, ear-marked funds, etc.)

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A.3. Building codes, land use and seismic retrofit

A.3.a. Building code policies

· Please describe the roles and responsibilities for formulating and implementing building code policies in Italy?

· Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and the resources it devotes in order to fulfil the role of formulating and implementing building code policies.

· Please describe recent evolutions in Italys building codes. Which are the underlying objectives for change, and what are the expected effects of a change?

· How is the formulation of codes for buildings and physical infrastructures linked to natural disaster risk assessments and lessons learnt from previous disasters in and outside Italy? Please indicate communication and coordination channels.

· What are the average delays of formulating a building code before this is translated into actual policy?

· What is the renewal rate of buildings in Italy per year?

· Which are the mechanisms for enforcing building codes in Italy? Is there a difference in the treatment of public and private buildings?

A.3.b. Land use policies

· Please describe the roles and responsibilities in designing and implementing land use policies in Italy?

· Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.

· Which are the land use criteria, if any, defined by the Department of Civil Protection and others, in relation to natural disaster risk and vulnerability?

· Please describe possible recent evolutions in land use policy in Italy related to disaster reduction. Which are the underlying objectives for change, and what are the expected effects of a change?

· How is the formulation of land use policies linked to disaster risk assessment and lessons learnt from previous disasters in and outside Italy? Please indicate communication and coordination channels.

· Do these criteria refer to risk assessments elaborated by local/central authorities?

· Which are the enforcement mechanisms for land use policies?

A.3.c. Seismic retrofit

· Please describe the roles and responsibilities in designing and implementing seismic retrofit policies in Italy?

· Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.

· Please describe possible recent evolutions in seismic retrofit policy in Italy. Which are the underlying objectives for change, and what are the expected effects of a change?

ANNEX 3                                        117

· How is the formulation of seismic retrofit policies linked to earthquake risk assessment and lessons learnt from previous earthquakes in and outside Italy? Please indicate communication and coordination channels.

· Which are the existing policies in place to encourage the seismic retrofit of

o Public constructions

o Private non-housing constructions

o Private housing

o Other constructions

· Are these actions coordinated with those of other organisations? Please describe.

· Has a legislative framework been put in place to allocate responsibility and liability for seismic retrofit of buildings? If so, please describe.

· Please inform about current or planned research programmes for the seismic retrofit of buildings and the resources devoted to this activity.

A.3.d.Self-assessment

· What is your view on the current legislative framework in Italy concerning land use, building codes and seismic retrofit? Is the legislation „fit for purpose?

· Are there any obstacles to the correct implementation of land use, building code and seismic retrofit policies? If so, please elaborate.

· How has the legal and regulatory framework evolved in the last 10 years, taking into consideration experiences from past disasters, public sector decentralisation, etc.?

A.4. Information to the public

A.4.a. Awareness-raising among the general public

· Please briefly describe your role and responsibilities with regard to awareness-raising activities, for the hazards listed in A.1.a, vis-à-vis the general public.

· Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.

· Which other actors cooperate with your organisation with regard to awareness-raising activities at State level? At regional level? At prefecture level? At provincial level? At municipal level? Please describe the coordination and communication channels.

A.4.b. Awareness-raising among public and private actors

· Please describe your role and responsibilities with regard to awareness-raising activities vis-à-vis public (regions, prefectures, provinces, municipalities) and private actors (infrastructure operators, etc.).

· Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.

· Which other actors cooperate with your organisation with regard to such activities at State level? At regional level? At prefecture level? At provincial level? At municipal level? Please describe the coordination and communication channels.

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A.4.c. Alert

· Please describe your role and responsibilities with regard to hazard warnings for the hazards listed in A.1.a.

· Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.

· Which other actors cooperate with your organisation with regard to warning activities at State level? At regional level? At prefecture level? At provincial level? At municipal level? Please describe the coordination and communication channels.

A.4.d. Self-assessment

· What is your view of the Italian populations preparedness for a major disaster of the types listed in A.1.a? Has the level of preparedness increased or decreased in the last 10 years?

A.5. Evacuation and rescue

A.5.a. Roles and responsibilities

· Please describe the role and responsibilities of your organisation with regard to disaster induced evacuation and rescue activities for the hazards listed in A.1.a.

· Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.

· Which other actors cooperate with your organisation with regard to evacuation and rescue activities at State level? Regional Level? At prefecture level? At provincial level? At municipal level? Please describe the coordination and communication channels.

· How is the formulation of evacuation and rescue plans linked to risk and vulnerability assessments and lessons learnt from previous disasters in and outside Italy (e.g. evacuation of particular population groups)? Please indicate communication and coordination channels.

A.5.b. Self-assessment

· What is your view of your own organisations response capacity for a major disaster from amongst the types listed in A.1.a?

· What is your assessment of the overall response capacity of emergency rescue organisations in Italy?

· Do you consider that the population has changed over the last 10-20 years, and that this has consequences for disaster evacuation and rescue? Please describe.

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A.6. Recovery enhancement

A.6.a. Disaster losses mitigation

· Please describe the efforts of your organisation to encourage the development of business continuity plans among

o Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

o Large Corporations

o Operators of critical infrastructures

· Please describe the policy tools (legal incentives, tax, awareness-raising, other)

· Are there any other policies in place to mitigate economic losses of disasters? Please describe.

· Are there policies in place to encourage disaster losses mitigation among individuals? Please describe.

A.6.b. Disaster insurance

· Please describe the current public or private insurance schemes in Italy for the various hazards mentioned above in A.1.a (e.g. percentage of insurance penetration among Italian households; coverage of insurance policy, insurance financing, State implication, etc.).

· Are there any policies to encourage insurance for these hazards, directed towards

o Home owners

o Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

o Other

A.6.c. Compensation of victims

· Please briefly describe the policies and legislation in place for victim compensation and reconstruction

· Of all reconstruction costs, which share is paid by the individuals, the State and the private sector?

A.6.d. Self-assessment

· Do you consider that the current compensation system in Italy is capable of recovering from a „mega-scale disaster?

· In your opinion, is the current compensation system equitable, or does it particularly hit certain groups of the population, or business sectors?

· Has this changed in the last 10 years? How are the prospects for the next 20 years?

A.7. Feedback and organisational change

· Please describe your role and responsibilities with regard to feedback and organisational change.

· Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.

· Which other actors cooperate with your organisation with regard to such activities at State level? At regional level? At prefecture level? At provincial level? At municipal level? Please describe the coordination and communication channels.

· Are there past examples where experience feedback has led to organisational change? Please give examples.

ANNEX 3                 120

· Do channels exist for the private sector, NGOs or citizens to provide feedback on existing structures and policies? Please give examples.

A.8. International Cooperation

· Please describe your role and responsibilities with regard to international cooperation for disaster reduction and emergency response.

· Please describe the way in which your organisation is structured and the resources it devotes in order to fulfil this role.

· Which other actors cooperate with your organisation with regard to such activities at State level? At regional level? At prefecture level? At provinvial level? At municipal level? Please describe the coordination and communication channels.

· Please indicate how results of this activity are integrated into existing policies in

o The other policy layers (Assessment, decision-making, etc.)

o The different disaster preparedness and mitigation disciplines (land use, building codes, seismic retrofit, research, etc.)

o Are there past examples where international cooperation has led to organisational change? Please give examples.

o How are international practices and experiences used in evaluating and elaborating Italian disaster preparedness policy?

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B. Questionnaire to regional, prefectural, provincial and municipal authorities

B.1. Role and organisation

B.1.a Please describe your responsibilities with regard to earthquakes, volcanoes, floods and forest fires.

· Of these activities, which are implementations of decisions from the central government administration and which draw from your sole responsibility in this area?

· What is the organisational structure in place to fulfil these responsibilities?

· Please provide available data on your specific resources corresponding to these functions (annual budget) and their sources (i.e. grants from the central government, user fees, taxes, etc.)

B.1.b. If available, please provide a detailed description (including maps) of:

· Exposure to earthquake, volcano, flood and forest fire

· A record of major earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, forest fires in the region/ province/ municipality in the past decades

· Industrial activities located in your region/ province municipality

· Geographical concentrations of housing structures, collective buildings

B.2. Cooperation with other administrative units

B.2.a. Relations with other regions/ prefectures/ provinces /municipalities

· Which other actors does your region/ province /municipality cooperate with in carrying out its responsibilities described in B.1.a (other regions, prefectures, provinces, municipalities, ministries, National Civil Protection Service)? In each case, please give a brief account of the sharing of responsibilities between your organisation and actors from other levels.

· Which activities are most likely to be shared with other actors? Does this involve training activities? Please describe.

B.2.b. Cooperation within the region/ prefecture/ province/ municipality

· To which extent do preparedness authorities in your region/ prefecture/ province /municipality cooperate and coordinate their activities with other „non-preparedness services (education, social and health services, other)? If so, for which type of activities? Please describe.

B.3. Building codes, Land use and Seismic retrofit

What activities do you take to mitigate the risk of earthquake, volcanoe, flood and forest fire before a disaster?

· Building inspections

· Land use zoning

ANNEX 3                      122

· Construction of coastal barriers, dikes, banks, levis and dams

Please provide available data on your specific resources corresponding to these functions and their sources.

What are the major challenges do you face in undertaking activities to protect against and prevent damages arising from earthquake, volcano, flood and/or forest fire disasters?

· What are the causes of these challenges?

B.4.Emergency Response

§ Please describe your role with regard to disaster induced evacuation and rescue activities.

· Please describe the way in which your evacuation and rescue teams are structured and the resources your region devoted to this purpose.

· Which other actors cooperate with your organisation with regard to evacuation and rescue activities at State level? At regional/ provincial/ municipal level? Please describe the coordination and communication channels.

· How is the formulation of evacuation and rescue plans linked to risk and vulnerability assessments and lessons learnt from previous disasters in and outside Italy (e.g. evacuation of particular population groups)? Please indicate communication and coordination channels.

B.5. Overall Self-assessment

· What is your view of the overall response capacity for emergency rescue organisations in your region/ prefecture/ province / municipality to earthquake, volcano, flood and/or forest fire?

· Is there an official process in place with established benchmarks to guide your evaluation of the regional/ prefectural/ provincial / municipal capacity to fulfil its responsibilities regarding earthquake, volcano, flood and/or forest fire disaster preparedness?

Do you consider that the population has changed over the last 10-20 years, and that this has consequences for disaster evacuation and rescue? Please describe.

· What are the major challenges faced by your region/ prefecture/ province / municipality in preparing for earthquake, volcano, flood and/or forest fire disasters? What are their causes?

· How has the physical and social vulnerability to these hazards evolved in the last 10 years?

How do you expect these vulnerabilities to evolve in the next 10 years in your region/ prefecture/ province/ municipality?

ANNEX 4                 123

ANNEX 4                 124

Annex 4 - Presentation of INGV, RELUIS and the EUCENTRE

 Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)

The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is part of the National Civil Protection Service and provides in accordance with legal requirements basic hazard data and knowledge and monitors volcanoes and earthquakes. It is not the task of INGV to develop risk analysis and assess vulnerabilities in respect to the population. The Seismic law has established the zones to be studied carefully and education has been introduced for engineers on how to conduct seismic stress studies for buildings. In Italy there are no well defined seismogenic structures as in some other parts of the world where these can be closely linked to the interfaces between the continental plates. INGV is responsible for the National Earthquake Centre, yearly funded by DPC, which can give DPC precise information within 2 minutes on the location and magnitude of seismic activity based on a well-meshed and dense seismometric network for providing real-time information on the occurrence of incidents.

INGV can thus provide information on what has happened, not what is going to happen, as seismic prediction is not viable at the present state-of-the-art. New seismic catalogues and hazard maps are periodically elaborated, with the cooperation of the national scientific community and the DPC since 1998 together with proposals for classification. Seismic classification is the basic tool for preventive action. Nowadays about 70% of Italy is classified in zones 1, 2, 3, while zone 4 covers the remaining part of the Italian territory. In Zone 4 some minimal requirements for seismic safety under low intensity earthquakes must however be complied with. With the new code the seismic provisions needed for earthquake-safe design are directly related to the most recent (2006) hazard maps produced by INGV. In the national hazard maps there is no consideration of the local geology (the map doesnt go into sediments of different areas on national scale) as it refers to a standard stiff soil condition. Local soil conditions and possible amplification effects are taken into account when designing a structure (e.g. of building or of a bridge) based on specific soil investigation, according to the enforced seismic code (2008).

The maps provide just seismic hazard, not risk, and therefore not assessments and mapping of vulnerability zones which are made by others than INGV. The national seismic hazard map will be available on Internet.

Further improvements could be to produce seismic hazard maps with better resolution and better tools to transform the seismic information into more useful practical outputs for authorities, builders, etc.. This is one of the object of the ongoing research project of INGV funded by DPC. The update of the national hazard map is, however, a great challenge, as a wide consensus has to be reached in the scientific community due to its economic and social implications. Updating every five years could be a good compromise between the need to have an up-to-date prevention tool and the timeliness of not changing it too frequently.

ANNEX 4                  125

 Laboratories University Network of earthquake engineering (ReLuis)

The Laboratories University Network of seismic engineering (ReLuis), founded through a conventional act signed on 17th of April of 2003, is an interuniversity consortium with the purpose to coordinate the University Laboratories activity of earthquake engineering, giving scientific, organizational, technical and financial supports to associated University and promoting their participation to scientific and technological orientated activities in earthquake engineering area, in accordance with national and international research plans in this area.

Coordination action promotes the partnerships between University, Private University and Interuniversity Centres (henceforth indicated with the term “University”) and between them and other research institutes and industries and also promotes the development of seismic engineering laboratories according a statute through conducting knowledge generation and circulation. The ReLUIS consortium is a scientific interlocutor of different governmental, regional, provincial and council agencies and of public and private institutes to get tangible objectives concerning vulnerability and risk evaluation and reduction. All the scholars belonging to the associated consortium structures can associate and participate in Consortium activity, cooperating in an interdisciplinary way. The consortium has the main office in Naples in the Dipartimento di Analisi e Progettazione Strutturale at the University of Naples “Federico II”. The consortium is a nonprofit organization.

Founding members are:

· Università degli Studi della Basilicata (Potenza) - Dipartimento di Strutture, geotecnica, geologia Applicata allIngegneria

· Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II - Dipartimento di Analisi e Progettazione Strutturale

· Università degli Studi di Pavia - Dipartimento di Meccanica Strutturale.

Succession members:

· Università degli Studi di Trento - Dipartimento di Meccanica Strutturale.

With DPC providing EUR 5 million of funding over the last three years, ReLUIS has managed and carried out the main research program for earthquake engineering involving 40 universities and about 1000 researchers. Special attention is devoted to experimental laboratory research, exploiting the great capabilities of the consortium. The past research program was especially focused on the seismic vulnerability of buildings and bridges, the use of new technologies for seismic protection, the development of seismic prevention tools and seismic risk evaluation.

ReLUIS has provided an important scientific support in the emergency and post-emergency management of the Abruzzo Earthquake, its associated members being involved in the damage assessment surveys of buildings, infrastructures and cultural heritage, in the repair and retrofit of damaged schools campaign, in the technical check of repair and strengthening design documents of private buildings, and in the elaboration of case-studies for the repair and retrofit of historical centres.

ANNEX 4                            126

 EUCENTRE

Roles and responsibilities in risk and vulnerability assessment related to civil protection

The EUCENTRE is a non-profit Foundation of the Department of Civil Protection (DPC), Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Università degli Studi di Pavia (UniPV) and Istituto Universitario degli Studi Superiori di Pavia (IUSS). The core task of the EUCENTRE is to promote and sustain activities on earthquake risk mitigation through:

· research developments;

· guidelines and support to code developments for decision making organizations;

· education and training of researchers in earthquake engineering and experts in the following disciplines: engineering seismology, geology, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering (design of new structures and assessment and retrofit of existing structures).

· consultancy activities at national and international level.

In all projects, attention has been paid to present results in a format which is useful for:

· decision making institutions in planning emergency management;

· cost-benefit models which compare the cost of a retrofit measure with the benefit in terms of risk reduction;

· evaluation of secondary effects deriving from the damage produced by an earthquake.

All the research and consultancy activities of the EUCENTRE, which has a personnel of 104 persons, is organised in sections with groups experts in the various disciplines of earthquake engineering. The EUCENTRE cooperates directly with DPC, almost 50% of the EUCENTREs activities are related to civil protection, and organisations such as the municipalities, regions and prefectures in order to provide information on the definition of seismic input, the vulnerability of structures and infrastructures and, in general, of all the ingredients that enable a mathematical quantification of seismic risk. Furthermore, the EUCENTRE interacts with private organizations especially through the EUCENTRE Laboratory, which carries out experimental tests to prove and qualify the seismic performance of industrial products.

The EUCENTREs link with DPC and other decision-making organizations is deeply related with its institutional activities. On the other hand, in order to specify how EUCENTRE is linked with private organizations, very often the clients become members of the Professional Partnership Scheme.

The first Italian Code which has foreseen the need to monitor seismic risk is the “Ordinanza del Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri No 3274” (OPCM No 3274, 2003). This regulation required a programme to be undertake to check the seismic performance of structures relevant for the civil protection (e.g. hospitals, fire stations, etc.) or in terms of consequences of a disaster (e.g. schools, theatres, etc.). Since then, Italian decision making organizations such as the regions have activated several programmes which have involved the EUCENTRE. The main projects are listed in the following:

ANNEX 4                                127

Closed projects:

· Lombardy region: Evaluation of seismic risk for the Hospitals of the Lombardy district in Italy;

· RMS: Definition of probabilistic distribution of response parameters (i.e. displacement capacity and base shear resistance) for building structural typologies typical of the “as built” in Italy;

· DPC-INGV: Support for the improvements in the prediction of seismic hazard maps of displacements and accelerations of Italy;

· FP6-LESSLOSS: Risk mitigation for earthquakes and landslides. Eucentre has acted as coordinator of the European project which had 46 partners.

Active projects:

· Prefecture of Siracusa: Assessment of the seismic risk of the Industrial area of Priolo Gargallo;

· Airplane: Seismic risk maps of Italy;

· DPC-Reluis 2: Study of the seismic behaviour of RC buildings with infill walls;

· MIUR-FIRB: Evaluation and mitigation of the seismic risk of large infrastructures;

· DPC-PE 7: Adaptive pushover analyses;

· Region of Calabria: Evaluation of seismic risk of structure and infrastructures.

Planned projects:

DPC –EUCENTRE 2008-2011: Seismic Risk of Residential Buildings in Italy at a national scale

DPC –EUCENTRE 2008-2011: Application of a Methodology for Defining Priorities and Timescales for Seismic Intervention in School Buildings in Italy

DPC –EUCENTRE 2008-2011: Seismic Risk of the Road Networks in Italy at a National Scale

Region of Sicily: Evaluation of seismic risk of large industrial estates in Sicily

128

Annex 5 - List of Interviewees

 In the course of the study visits and interviews, the Review Team met with representatives of:

The Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC)

The National Functional Centre (NFC)

The National Operational Room (SSI)

The Rai Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI)

The Radio Channel Isoradio

The National Fire Brigade Corps

The Central Fire Station of Rome

The State Forest Corps

The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)

The Prefecture of Genoa

The Region of Liguria

The Province of Parma

The Region of Emilia Romagna

The Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e l´Ambiente dell´Emilia-Romagna (ARPA),

The Hydro-Meteo-Climate Service of ARPA Emilia-Romagna (SIMC)

The Region of Sicily

The Armed Forces/Italian Joint Operations Headquarters of the Defence (COI)

The State Railway Company (RFI)

Telecom Italia

The City of Naples

The Prefecture of Naples

The Regional Functional Centre of Campania

The Municipality of Portici

The Civil Protection of Portici

The Civil Protection of Milan

The Region of Lombardy

The Regional Functional Centre of Lombardy

The National Volunteer Organisation Corpo degli Alpini

The EUCENTRE in Pavia

The Province of Pavia

ANNEX 5                       129

Notes

1 EC FP6 Integrated Project – PREVIEW: Landslides Platform Overview, Gaia Righini, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Firenze, Italy

2 Established by law 353/2000

3 Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE) was published in the official Journal on the 25th April 2007. The INSPIRE Directive entered into force on the 15th May 2007

4 Directive 2003/105/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2003 amending Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances

5 World Tourism Organization, Tourism Highlights (2008 Edition).

6 Directive 2003/105/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2003 amending Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances.

7 Directive 2002/22/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 March 2002 on universal service and users' rights relating to electronic communications networks and services (Universal Service Directive) as well as more specific requirements regarding 112, e.g., geographic positioning of mobile telephone calls (Commission Recommendation of 25 July 2003/K (2003) 2657) and the COUNCIL DECISION of 29 July 1991 on the introduction of a single European emergency call number (91/396/EEC).